ESS112 Notes - Week 2
ESS112 Notes - Week 2 ESS 112
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Gerichten on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ESS 112 at West Chester University of Pennsylvania taught by Marc Gagne in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Galaxies and Cosmology in Earth Sciences at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
ESS 112 – Galaxies & Cosmology Highlight = Homework/Other Tasks Highlight = Main Idea Highlight = Important Term= Helpful Tip Week 2 Class 3 – Jan 27 Metric System Prefix Meaning Notation Symbol Tera trillion 10 12 T Giga billion 10 9 G 6 Mega million 10 M kilo thousand 10 3 k centi one-hundreth 10 -2 c milli one-thousandth 10 -3 m -6 micro one-millionth 10 µ nano one-billionth 10 -9 n pico one-trillionth 10 -12 p Temperature Units K ͦ ͦ Absolute Zero 0 -273 -459 Water Freezes 273 0 32 Room 300 23 81 Temperature Water Boils 373 100 212 Other Units Density = kg/m (or g/cm ) AU (Astronomical Unit) = the average distance from Earth to the Sun = approx. 150 mil km, or 1.5e8 km Distance from the Sun to the Moon = 3.8e5 km Light-minute = the distance that light travels in one minute, or 1.8e7 km Speed of light constant = 3e5 km/s, where ‘s’ stands for ‘second’ 1 AU = 8.3 light-minutes Parsec (pc) = 206,265 AU = 3.26 light-years Brightness – the amount of light emitted from an object, represented 2 by W/m (watts per square meter) Main Idea: The scope of the universe contains objects and distances both bigger and smaller than normally perceivable. Proxima Centauri (the nearest star to the solar system) = 1.3 pcs away Center of the Milky Way = 7,500 pcs away Andromeda Galaxy (the closest galaxy to the Milky Way) = 800,000 pcs away Converting Units xU1 yU 2 xU1 yU 2 1 x 1U = 1 x 1U = x∗yU 2 = xyU2 1 1 Common Distance Unit Conversions 1 km = 0.62 mi 1 AU = 1.5e8 km 1 light-year = 9.5e12 km = 6.3e4 AU Homework, Mission Report and Wrap-Up for Chapters 2&3 due by midnight on Thursday, Feb 4 Class 4 – Jan 29 Helpful Website: http://joshworth.com/dev/pixelspace/pixelspace_solarsystem.html “If the moon were only a pixel” – compares objects and their distance relative to the moon = 1 pixel Exam Tip: There will be pictures of objects you have to identify as well as provide details (see examples in Chapter 1 Section 3 of the textbook) such as age, composition, and other facts found in the captions. Lab Activity: How Far and How Big? Main Goal: Understanding the size and scope of objects in the universe and their distances from each other Status: Not completed by the end of class Looking Ahead to Chapter 2 Radiation – methods of energy transportation that can carry information across empty space (different from radiation that is specifically harmful to humans) Light behaves as waves but is also often detected as photons, or particles of light which carry a definite amount of energy. Photometry – the measurement of the brightness of various astronomical objects Frequency – number of wave cycles that pass by a point in a given time; usually measured in Hertz (Hz), which is equal to cycles per one second Wavelength – the distance between adjacent peaks in a series of waves
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