Microbiology Notes: Week 1
Microbiology Notes: Week 1 Bio 113
Popular in Microbiology for the Health Sciences
Popular in Microbiology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tera Frame on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 113 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Bernot in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see Microbiology for the Health Sciences in Microbiology at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Week #1 Study Guide Describe 6 different groups of microorganisms and differentiate the groups based on organism characteristics o Bacteria: Prokaryotic microorganisms typically having cell walls composed of peptidoglycan. In Woese’s taxonomy, domain which includes all prokaryotic cells having bacterial rRNA sequences o Algae: Eukaryotic unicellular or multicellular photosynthetic organisms with simple reproductive structures o Fungi: Eukaryotic organisms that have cell walls and obtain food from other organisms o Protozoa: Single-celled eukaryotes that lack a cell wall and are similar to animals in their nutritional needs and structure o Helminths: Multicellular eukaryotic worms, some of which are parasitic o Viruses: Tiny infectious acellular agent with nucleic acid surrounded by proteinaceous capsomeres that form a covering called a capsid List and describe questions that propelled research in the “Golden Age of Microbiology” (how were they answered and by whom?) o Is spontaneous generation of microbial life possible? o What causes fermentation? o What causes disease? o How can we prevent infection and disease? Identify prominent scientists in the “Golden Age of Microbiology” and their contributions to the field of microbiology (IN ORDER!!!!!) o Redi: Disproved spontaneous generation by showing maggots arose from meat only when flies laid eggs on meat o Needham: Gained favor for spontaneous generation when showed that if broth was boiled and allowed to sit in open air, it became cloudy with microbes o Pasteur: Disproved spontaneous generation with the swan- neck flask experiment, which inhibited colonization of broth o Koch: Provided definitive proof microbes cause disease by isolating anthrax o Jenner: Smallpox Vaccination Define major sub-disciplines in microbiology o Immunology: Study of immune system o Virology: Study of viruses o Protozoology: Study of protozoa o Phycology: Study of algae o Mycology: Study of fungi o Bacteriology: Study of prokaryotes List major questions that drive microbiological research today o What are the basic chemical reactions of life? o How do genes work? o What role do microorganisms play in the environment? o How do we defend against disease? Define and describe the general principles governing microscopy: wavelength, magnification, resolution, contrast o Wavelength: The distance between two corresponding points of a wave o Magnification: Occurs in two phases: objective lens(real image) and ocular lens(virtual image) o Resolution: Ability to separate 2 points (DO NOT confuse with magnification) Shorter wavelength = better resolution o Contrast: Difference between background and foreground Compare and contrast 7 types of microscopes o Phase-Contrast Specimen has light and dark areas, used to observe internal structures of living microbes o Fluorescence Brightly colored fluorescent structures against dark background, used to localize specific chemicals/structures as well as an accurate/quick diagnostic tool for detection of pathogens o Scanning Tunneling Individual molecules and atoms visible, used to observe the surface of objects, provide extremely fine detail, high magnification/great resolution o Scanning Electron Monotone, 3D, surface images, may be color enhanced; used to observe the surface details of surfaces o Transmission Electron Monotone, 2D, highly magnified images, may be color enhanced; used to observe internal ultra- structural detail of cells and observation of viruses and small bacteria o Bright-Field Color or clear specimen against bright background; used to observe killed stained specimens and naturally colored live ones and to count microorganisms o Differential Interference Contrast Image appears 3D; used to observe internal structures of living microbes Describe the process for preparing specimens for microscopy o Small volume of specimen o Smear medium spread onto slide o Heat fixation o Stain Describe the simple, Gram, acid-fast, and endospore staining procedures o Gram: Flood slide with crystal violet for 1 min, then rinse with water (all cells are stained purple) Flood slide with iodine for 1 min, then rinse with water (all cells remain purple) Slide is rinsed with solution of ethanol and acetone for 10-30 sec, then rinsed with water (gram positive=purple, gram negative=colorless) Slide is flooded with safranin for 1 min, then rinsed with water and blotted dry (gram positive=purple, gram negative=pink)
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