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Chem 101, Chapter 1 Notes

by: Alyssa Kelly

Chem 101, Chapter 1 Notes CHEM 101

Marketplace > University of Rhode Island > Science > CHEM 101 > Chem 101 Chapter 1 Notes
Alyssa Kelly
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These notes are taken from the lecture and from the book. Highlighted words are important vocabulary words.
Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements
Dr. Shahla Yekta
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Kelly on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 101 at University of Rhode Island taught by Dr. Shahla Yekta in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements in Science at University of Rhode Island.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
CHM 101 – Chapter 1 Notes Section 1.3 – Classifications of Matter Chemistry: study of matter and the changes it undergoes Matter: Anything that occupies space and has mass - Exists in three states: solid, liquid, and gas - Solid: definite shape - Liquid: assume the shape of their containers - Gas: expand indefinitely Substances and Mixtures Substance: matter that has definite or constant composition and distinct properties; differ from one another in composition; identified by appearance, smell, taste, etc.; substances can be either an element or a compound i.e., water, silver, ethanol Mixture: combination of two or more substances; substances retain their distinct identities; do not have constant composition; mixtures can be separated by physical means into its pure components without changing identities of those components i.e., air, soft drinks, milk Homogeneous mixture: composition same throughout the solution Heterogeneous mixture: composition not uniform Elements and Compounds Element: substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means; 118 elements; first letter is always capitalized, second letter is always lowercase Compound: substance composed of two or more elements by chemical means, which means they can only be separated by chemical means Section 1.4 - Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter Physical property: measuring and observing a substance without changing the composition or identity i.e., color, melting point, boiling point, density Chemical property: properties observed by carrying out chemical changes i.e., “Hydrogen gas burns in oxygen gas to form water” Extensive property: depends on how much matter is being considered i.e., mass, length, volume Intensive property: does not depend on the amount of matter being considered; not additive i.e., temperature, melting point, boiling point, density Section 1.5 – Measurement Macroscopic properties: can be determined directly i.e., meterstick to measure length, buret, pipet, graduated cylinder Microscopic properties: determined by an indirect method; on the atomic or molecular scale SI Units International System of Units (SI): national system of measurements -Length is measured in meters (m) -Mass is measured in kilograms (kg) -Time is measured in seconds (s) -Temperature is measured in Kelvin (K) -Amount of substance is measured in moles (mol) Prefixes used with SI Units giga (G): 1 gigameter (Gm) = 1*10 m9 mega (M): 1 megameter (Mm) = 1*10 m 6 3 kilo (k): 1 kilometer (km) = 1*10 m = 1000 m deci (d): 1 decimeter (dm) = 0.1 m centi (c): 1 centimeter (cm) = 0.01 m milli (m): 1 millimeter (mm) = 0.001 m; 1000 mm = 1 m micro (u): 1 micrometer (um) = 1*10 m -6 -9 nano (n): 1 nanometer (nm) = 1*10 m Mass and Weight Mass: quantity of matter in an object; constant value that does not depend on location Weight: the force that gravity exerts on an object; depends on location Volume 3 Volume: length cubed; 1 mL = 1 cm Density Density: mass divided by volume; D = m/v Temperature Scales ? Kelvin = Celsius + 273.15 Section 1.6 – Handling Numbers Scientific Notation Scientific Notation: expresses a number as a product of a number between 1 and 10 and the appropriate power of 10; N * 10 where 1</= N </= 10 and n = integer Significant Figures Rules for SigFigs: 1. Any digit that is not zero is significant. 2. Zeros between nonzero digits are significant. 3. Initial zeros are not significant. 4. Final zeros to the right of the decimal point are significant. 5. Final zeros in a number with no decimal point may or may not be significant. SigFigs in Calculations 1. In addition and subtraction, use the same number of digits past the decimal point of the number with the least precision. 2. In multiplication and division, use the same number of digits as the number with the least amount of sigfigs. 3. Exact numbers, counted or from a definition, have no effect on sigfigs. Accuracy and Presision Accuracy: how close a measurement is to the true value Precision: how closely two or more measurements agree with each other Section 1.7 – Dimensional Analysis Dimensional analysis: procedure to convert between units Conversion factors: used as a multiplier to cancel unwanted units and replace them with new units


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