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LIFE102 Week 2 Notes

by: Sydney Dingman

LIFE102 Week 2 Notes Life 102

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Biology > Life 102 > LIFE102 Week 2 Notes
Sydney Dingman
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

Covers the second week of lecture
Attributes of Living Systems
Erik N Arthun
Class Notes
Biology, Life 102
25 ?




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Dingman on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Erik N Arthun in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Week 2 Life 102 Notes 1/25/16, Chapter 3: Properties of Water  Water is essential for all life on Earth  Organisms are 70-95% water  What is special about water? o Cohesive (sticky) o Moderates temperature o Expands upon freezing o Excellent solvent  All of these are due to the fact that water is polar  Cohesiveness of water o Polar covalent bonds within water molecules (Partial negative on oxygen molecules and partial positive on hydrogen) o Hydrogen bonds between water molecules o Sticking of water allows for it to be transported into the photosynthesis process and nutrients go with it o Also means that water has a high surface tension: measure of how hard it is to stretch/break the surface of a liquid  Water moderates changes in temperature o Water has an unusually high specific hear: amount of energy required to change 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius o Water changes its temperature less than other liquids when it absorbs the same amount of energy o Water heats up: hydrogen bonds are broken, heat is absorbed o Water cools down: hydrogen bonds form, heat is released o Because of the hydrogen bonds: water has a high heat of vaporization: it takes a lot of energy to vaporize water o As liquid evaporates, its remaining surface cools= evaporative cooling o Evaporative cooling of water helps stabilize temperatures in organisms and bodies of water.  Water is most-dense at 4 degrees Celsius, not 0 o Frozen water floats  When water reaches freezing, it expands by pushing against the hydrogen bonds.  The molecules are then so far apart that the hydrogen bonds don’t break. o If ice sank, all bodies of water would eventually freeze solid, making life impossible on Earth  Water is a Polar Solvent o Hydrophilic substances: High affinity for water  Ions  Polar Molecules o Hydrophobic substances: Low affinity for water  Non-polar molecules  Non-ionic elements o Compounds dissolve in water to form a solution  Most biological reactions occur in water o Important properties to know about solutions  Solute concentrations  Rates of biological reactions depend on the concentration of reactants  High concentrations of certain compounds can influence other chemical reactions  pH  A hydrogen atom in a hydrogen bond between two water molecules can shift from one to the other o The hydrogen atom leaves its electron behind is transferred as a proton, or hydrogen ion (H+) o The molecule with the extra proton is now a hydronium ion (H30+), though it is often represented at H+ o The molecule that lost the proton is now a hydroxide ion (OH-)  Pure water: H+ and OH- concentrations are equal  The dissociation of water molecules produces H2O 2  pH: a measure of the concentration of H+ ions in a solution  The greater the H+, the more acidic the solution  SHORTCUT: what is the power of hydrogen? See PowerPoint for example  pH < 7 = acidic  pH = 7 = neutral  pH > 7 = basic  Acids and bases have huge impact on how we function o Acid: any substance that increases the H+ of a solution o Base: any substance that reduces the H+ of a solution o EX:  NH3 + H+ = NH4  Controlling pH is important for cells o Biological reactions have optimal pH o Buffer: Substances that minimizes changes in H+ and OH- in a solution o Solvent: the dissolving agent of a solution o Solute: the substance that is dissolved o Concentration: how much solute is present per volume of solvent in moles 1/27/16, Chapter 4: Organic Molecules: Carbon-based molecules  The dry matter of organisms consist mainly of organic molecules (e.g., proteins, DNA, fats, sugars, acids etc.)  Advantage of Carbon as Building Block for Life o Carbon is tetravalent  Needs 4 electrons to fill valence shell  Capable of making 4 chemical bonds 3  Large complex, and diverse molecules  When two carbons are bonded together, the molecule will be flat and inflexible.  Shape equals function  Carbon compounds vary in their: o Carbon Skeleton: how individual Carbons are joined o Side Groups: Accessories to the Carbon Skeleton  Carbon Skeletons o Length  Ethane is short, 2 carbons  Propane is longer with 3 carbons. o Branching  Butane are in an exact line  Isobutane has a branched point that changes the shape of the molecule  Isomer: same atomic compositions but different structures and properties. o Double bonded position  Vary in location  1-Butene: double-bonded at the first gap of 4 carbons  2-Butene: double-bonded at the middle gap between 4 carbons o Presence of rings  Structural formulas omit the carbons and attached hydrogens  Isomers o Structural Isomers: same atomic composition, but different carbon skeleton structures o Cis-trans Isomers: differing arrangement of side groups around a double bond o Enantiomers: orientation of side groups around a Carbon atom can affect molecular function; mirror-images, like left and right hands 4  Ibuprofen: S-Ibuprofen works 100x better than R-Ibuprofen  Albuterol: R-Albuterol is counteracted by S-Albuterol  Parkinsons: L-dopa works, D-dopa does not do anything  Side Groups o Hydroxyl groups (polar)  Composed of hydrogen and oxygen (OH)  Called an alcohol  Creates a polar covalent charge with carbon where carbon his partial positive o Carbonyl Groups (polar)  Carbon and oxygen with double-bond  Oxygen receives a partial negative charge o Carboxyl groups (acid)  Carbon double bonded to oxygen with an OH group as well  The hydrogen can be released and measured by pH in a liquid o Amino groups (base)  Nitrogen with two hydrogens  Nitrogen will take hydrogens out of the solution  Glycine is a building block for proteins o Sulfhydryl groups (bind other sulfhydryl groups)  Sulfur and hydrogen bonded to some other atom or molecule  One of most important for folding molecules or atoms o Phosphate groups (polar, reactive)  Phosphorus bonded to 4 oxygen atoms  ATPs are the primary energy-transferring molecule in the cell  Consist of an organic molecule called adenosine attached to a string of three phosphate groups  Creates energy because of pushing against each other 5 o Methyl groups (non-polar)  Carbon with 3 hydrogen atoms  Can change the expression of your genes  Arrangement of methyl groups can have a huge impact on how they function 1/29/16, Chapter 5: Large Biological Molecules  Macromolecules o Nucleic acids o Proteins o Polysaccharides o Lipids o The architecture of large biological molecules helps explain how that molecule works  Most macromolecules are polymers o Polymers are strings of monomers o Repeating building blocks linked by covalent bonds (bonds in which electrons are shared)  How are polymers created and disassembled? o Dehyration Reaction: synthesis  Dehydration removes a water molecule which will form a new bond o Hydrolysis: disassembly  Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond  Polysaccharides: many sugars put together o Carbohydrates: sugars and their polymers, serve as fuel and building material o Polymers of monosaccharides o Glucose o Monosaccharides differ in a number of different ways  Placement of carbonyl groups  Aldoses- carbonyl group located at the end 6  Ketoses- carbonyl group located at the second carbon  Most 5-carbon and 6-carbon sugars form ring structures o Disaccharides: 2 monomers  Maltose connected by dehydration reaction  Sucrose o Starch: polymer of alpha glucose, stored in plant energy o Cellulose: polymer of beta glucose, structure for plants o Functions of polysaccharides  Energy storage  Starch- plants  Glycogen- animals  Support  Cellulose- plants  Chitin- animals, insects, crustaceans  Lipids o Not polymers, not at big, hydrophobic o Fats  Triglygerides  Glycerol + 3 fatty acids  Dehydration Synthesis reactions attach the 3 fatty acids to the glycerol  Fats are hydrophobic due to the nonpolar C-H bonds in the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids  Saturated Fats  Animal fats o Lard, butter  Solid at room temperature  NO double bonds  Saturated with hydrogens  Unsaturated Fats  Liquid at room temperature 7  Double-bonds add kinks  Can’t pack together closely enough to solidify o Phospholipids  Structure: hydrophilic head + 2 hydrophobic tails  Negatively charged.  Amphopathic: water loving and fearing  Phospholipid bilayer  Heads arrange themselves out, tails go in o Steroids  Cholesterol and cholesterol-derived molecules  Cholesterol- keeps cell membrane “fluid”  Steroids-derived from cholesterol  Vertebrate sex hormones: testosterone and estradiol  Proteins o Structure: polymers of amino acids with R side group o Most structurally sophisticated molecules known o 20 different amino acids in proteins o depending on the side group, amino acids can be  polar or nonpolar  uncharged or charged  acidic or basic o 8


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