Class Note for CHEM 112 at UMass(12)
Class Note for CHEM 112 at UMass(12)
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Massachusetts taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Turn on Camtasia Recording m CMSS Dams M M WWW 93 5 u u Wthh IS the rate determining St 9 119 5 FA 83 B 4 D A shwor 212 w 6 316 6 cgt D E f39ol05 739 Cquotgt E rcachwngves What is the equation for the overall reaction x W S The Raschig reaction produces hydrazine NZH an industrially impovtaut veducing agent from NH and ocr in basic aqueuus minim A propused mechanism is Step 1 Fast NH1aq0l aq gt aq Mq Slap 2 Slaw mm NHaq gym am cmq Step 3 Fast lg aq Man a N H am M am A NH2C NH3OCI39 OH39 gt N2H4 2H2O B NH3 20CI39 gt N2H5 HZO OH39 2CI39 C 2NH3 OCI39 gt N2H4 2H2O Cl39 D NH3OCI39 OH39 gt N2H4 HZO Cl39 2NH3 OCI39 gt N2H4 HZO CI39 1uuoa39 e Lid ht cX L0 A A 3 For this proven reaction mechanism what will be the rate equa on Overall NO2 COgt COZ NO gt No 5 WW Fast N03 co gt No2 co2 A Rate kNOZCO Rate kCOZNO Rate kNO22 D Rate kNO2 E Rate kN03CO Forthis proven reaction mechanism what will be the rate equation Fast Equilibrium NOZCI lt gt NO2 Cl Slow NO2C Cl a NO2 CI2 H Kale K liVUZCI B Rate k NOZCC C Rate k NO22C D Rate k NO2C2 N02 E Rate k NO2C 2 5 Forthis proven reaction mechanism what D will be the rate equation We 5 2222 32Nei39m m amtUta ARaieiltNocu 333 Ere3 f M 5 Rate 1lt39NOZCl2 a KENM O E 3 Cu 39 252 ckEWMEM W Rama mw W s 0 Chemical Equa rions Depict the kind of reactants and products and their relative amounts in a reaction Ran 170 I AKs 3029 gt 2AI203s The numbersi the fron a fficien rs The letters s g and I are the physical states of compounds Chemical Equa iions Because the same atoms are present in a reaction at the beginning and at the end the amount ofmatter in a system does not change The Law of The Conservation of MaH39zr39 OS gt 2igiq 949 Chemical Equations Because of the principle of the conservation of matter an equation must be balanced It must have the same number of atoms of the same kind on both sides Lavoisier 1788 Balancing Equations 2Als i Brzaiq gti AIzBrscs lt 10 Examples of Chemical tquilibr ia Formation of s tites and stalagmites CaCOss HZO5 C02g z C aq 2 H39339aq 11 A leznants a Thewwnusm Sum ans arcane mimd Lemammmm3 mm 2 and cr are warm mus nut Shawn Pmduus H10 and mi gas CaWaz Hng aq Equili brinm Equniom n m Lam dissutvei when m sum un ha been jammed with mi 2 I o l 39 i 5 aming time x M g C cawaq 2 may 7 Reverse Reaction 3 pvedpinte uf EACH cams m vearu39nn nan cg ravemed ny huhh ng 01 gas mm the Law suspeniiun 0119 ta2aq 2 Htu aq CaC03s C02g Hzow Equilibrium When a reaction is at F uilib lm the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction There is no net observed change in the system We useQhen a system is at 4 3 equmbn 13 Properties of an Equilibrium Equilibrium systems are DYNAMIC in constant a motion REVERSIBLE can be approached from either direction Q Pinkto blu clan CoH204CI2 2 H20 1 Blue to pink CoH20402 2 H20 gtCoH206CI2 14 THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT For any type of chemical equilibrium of the type a A 4 L B a Cc 439 the following is a CONSTANT at a 39ven T K is unitless A c K t mi c D d 39 3 s pro uct J I Yank A EEWBreactant lf K is known we can predict concentrations of products or reactants lf we measure concentrations we can calculate K Wr39i ring Equilibrium Expressions Solids and pure liguids NEVER appear in quilibrium expressions 3Sgt 029 3029 6303 HCO339aq H30 C013 K tacos J 5 33 Because the solid does not appreciably change concentration Because water is 55 M 16 The Reaction Quotient Q in generai ALL reacting nemmai systems are characterized bytneirREACTiON OUOTiENT 0 Under Any mainquot mama mmnmmm CHEF A E may umentm om Reactiun quotien 1 IfQ K then system is at equilibrium 7 Reaction Quotient amp Equilibrium Constant 1a Reaction Quotient amp wquot u f m Equilibrium Constant Ham 129 2 ZHllsl point in the reaction H21 Comentrahon nf Rea cunt and Product Reactants proceeding tnward equitibn um 19 Reaction Quotient amp Equilibrium Constant 29 12m Zing Equilibrium acnrevedm In the equilibrium region H2 12 L9 55 3 K Hzlllzl K equilibrium constant Concentration of Rea Ltants and Product Readants proceeding toward equilibrium 2n What is the euilibrium expression NH3aq 39NH4aq OHaq K NH 1 OH39 NI4g 03 k x J 4 U NH4 OH 1 1 NH3 C K NH3 H20 D K NH3 N H40H39l N Hf OH39 21 0 05 4 2 Y8 3 Determining K as winithM 2NOCIgNog 029 39 Place 200 mol of NOCI is a 100 L flask At equilibrium you find 066 molL of NO Calculate K Cam I Womw Solution Set of an ICE table of concentrations NOCI NO CI2 lnitial 9 0 0 Qhange l 011ch 3M LEM Equilibrium 54 M 0 M 0 33 22 The Meaning of K 1 Can tell if a reaction is productfavored or reactantfavored IOFN29 3H29 2 NH39 Conc of products is much greaterthan that of reactants at equilibrium The reaction is strongly favored 23 The meaning of K AQCKS AgaQ C39aCl Kc AgCl39 18X10395 Conc of products is much less than that of reactants at equilibrium The reaction with small K is strongly quotfavored Agaq C39aq AgCS is prod uctfavored 24 Pr39oducT or39 ReacTanT Favored Productfavored Reactantfavored K gt 1 K lt 1 25 BuTane Isobu rane Seven i39subutane are added The system returns to enuiiibriunr u122gtK 01DAK An enniiibiium mixture of 5 isobutane SEven isabutane moLecuLes are added so A net of 2 isobutane muLecuLes has nroiecuues and 2 butane molecule the system is no Longer at equiLibri39mii changed to butane molecules to once again give an equitibrium mixture where the ratiu or isubutane m butane is 5 to 2 or 251 26 Product or reactant favored Table 161 Selected Equilibrium ConstantValues Equilibrium Constant Reaction K at 25 Q Pmducl or Remant Favored Cambination Reamun 11f Nonmetab 55 029 5029 12 X 1052 2 Haw 029 lt 2 H20g 32 x 10 New 3 HM lt 2 WM 35 gtlt 108 m 029 2 2 NOW Ianizarinn of Weak Acids and Bases HCOZHaq HZO gt Hco aq H30aq formic acid CH3 02Haq 14201 CHC0aq H0aq acetic acid H2C03aq HzOU Hm aq HUltaa carbonic acid NH3aq Ham 9 NH4aq omaq ammonia Dissolutian Hf Ynsmuble Salids CaC03s 8 Caaq co aq AgCls 9 Ag aq CHaq 17 x 10 2 at 2300 K 18 x 10quot 18 x 10 5 12 gtlt 10 7 1 8 gtlt 10 5 38 gtlt 10 1 8 gtlt 10quot 27
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