Music History II - Week 1 Notes
Music History II - Week 1 Notes MUTH 25600
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by sconsidine on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUTH 25600 at Ithaca College taught by Dr. Mark A. Radice in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see History and Literature of Music II in Music at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
pp. 462-476 Chapter 20 - Musical Taste and Style in the Enlightenment -in the 1720s a style known as the galant style became prevalent alongside a variety of other distinct musical styles -featured periodic melodies with light accompaniment -became popular because it was able to be appreciated by a wide audience Europe in the Enlightenment -Europe consisted largely of dominant, powerful states with large militaries (ex. France, Britain, Prussia, etc.) -populations grew rapidly throughout Europe/North America due to advancements in agriculture -economy grew with population as trade/manufacturing ﬁelds developed -while the poor remained at the bottom of the social ladder, the middle class made gains as the aristocracy declined in signiﬁcance -1700’s were a cosmopolitan age - marriages amongst powerful families of different states brought foreign-born rulers to a multitude of countries -international music style developed -brought together the best parts of each country’s individual style -nationalistic style was already beginning to form though -speciﬁcally through the popularity of opera in vernacular (as opposed to Italian) The Enlightenment -reason, nature, and progress - basis of the Enlightenment -from past scientiﬁc discovery, people believed they could solve many issues through reason -individuals had their own right and it was the government’s job to enhance the human state -people preferred doing what was right over following religious beliefs and worked for more equality than had ever been seen before -Enlightenment was led by several French thinkers known as philosophes -ex. Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau -more concerned with social reform particularly with the disparities between social classes -these ideas were later reproduced in the writings of famous American historical documents such as the Declaration of Independence and Constitution -humanitarianism movement -rulers of absolute power attempted to use their power for the betterment of their subjects -led to the Freemasonry movement -secret order of the Masons -music expanded and more enjoyed learning it especially those from the growing middle class -changed the style of writing and subject matter of music -education and the arts became more for everyone and was attempted to become more accessible Social Roles for Music -musicians made a living increasingly from contributions from the public through public concerts and as teachers -amateur musicianship grew as more pursued music -music publishers made music speciﬁcally for this type of audience with easy to read and perform pieces -women were allowed to pursue amateur music, but were excluded from professional careers (aside from that as a singer) -children received lessons, particularly young girls -amateur musician groups began to form as more and more people pursued music -opened a whole new group for music publishers to market to -connoisseur became a common term to refer to the informed listener who pursued only the best musicians had to offer -the growth in concerts/concert attendance and amateur music making aided each other -as music became a popular subject the ﬁrst universal texts describing the history of music were produced Music Taste and Style -many unique styles were around at the same time representing different tastes and countries -popular music of the time was that with a vocal melody apparent in short phrases with a minimal accompaniment -it was thought that the best music was that that was universal to everyone regardless of nationality or musical training -should be natural (not super technical), expressive, and entertaining -idea of naturalism directly related to foundations of the Enlightenment -musical taste at the time was thought to be directed by a person’s reasoning and rationality -break from the Baroque period to the Enlightenment was the creation of music for the enjoyment of listener’s and the audience as opposed to music being created to praise/please God Terms for Styles: Galant, Empﬁndsam, and Classical -classical style - new style formed from the new values for music -galant - common term for the new style -French word that became used to describe everything modern -known as more songlike and freer, homophonic -melody was important and repetition was common -empﬁndsam style - unpredictable changes of harmony, chromaticism, rhythms -more speech-like melody -associated with Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach’s fantasias and slow movements -classical music - very ambiguous term because of classics from greats like Mozart, Handel, and Bach that formed the foundation of what music was -following these composers the expansion of the style/repertoire came to be included under this broad term -Classic period (1730-1815) -classical music is an extremely general term and can describe all of the music within this period Melody, Harmony, Texture, and Form -newer types of music had periodicity - frequent resting points break the melodic ﬂow into distinct section that relate as part of a larger work -musical phrases were expressed in short phrases (2-4 measures) -2 or more phrases formed a period - complete musical thought ending in a cadence -composition has 2 or more periods in succession -started utilizing terms to describe this new musical style from rhetoric -comparing musical ideas to speech -Versuch einer Anleitung zur Composition, 3 volumes by Heinrich Christoph Koch in 1782, 1787, and 1793 - several treatises to learn how to compose -utilized idea of relating musical ideas to speech -division of melody into segments is supported by harmony -ex. does not just have to be 2 or 4 measure phrases -weaker cadences are used internal while strong cadences are used as ending points -basic harmonic motion followed I - V - I pattern -music changes less throughout than baroque music -compensated with pulsing chords/other rhythms such as Alberti bass - breaks chords into repeating pattern of short notes, named after Domenico Alberti -music had clear section for beginning, middle, and end Emotional Contrasts -new understandings of the human body made people come to the realization that a person’s emotional state was constantly change -this had a direct effect on musical styles - expressed as contrasts throughout pieces The Enduring Enlightenment -much of what we think of music today can be traced back to ideas formed during the Enlightenment -styles, reasons for composition pp. 477-493 Chapter 21 - Opera and Vocal Music in the Early Classic Period -much of the Classic era music can be traced to Italian opera which divided into two distinct types during this type -comic and serious opera -comic opera was less founded in tradition and was open to more musical change so much of the new elements in music were developed through this type -still changes in both though -styles of comic opera spread throughout Europe (France, England, etc.) and appeared to the public with simple/direct musical expression -serious opera had changes more in the introduction of Enlightenment ideals from composers of the time -church music also changed during this time though an integration of the old and new styles Italian Comic Opera -an renewed interest for opera and drama spread across Europe during the eighteenth century which led composers to exclude comical elements -this led to a new genre of opera in comic opera which experienced success to a larger audience Opera Buffa -opera buffa - comic opera -broad term that includes other forms including dramma giocoso, dramma comico, and commedia per musica -opera buffa featured a cast of about 6 singers and introduced the idea of singing throughout unlike other countries’ versions -plot appealed to a wider audience in that it was about average people of the time and played on the dramas and stereotypes of certain social classes -dialogue was extremely important and was typically accompanied by keyboard alone, -recitative was quick declamation -arias in comic opera are in galant style with short melodies that are often repeated -one of the ﬁrst composers was Leonardo Vinci - Li site ‘ngalera -libretto in Neapolitan dialect -in da capo form -string ensemble accompaniment Intermezzo -short comic opera performed in between acts of serious opera -very contrasting from the main performance -plot included 2-3 people with alternating recitatives and arias -ex. Giovanni Battista Pergolesi - La serva padrona (1733) Later Comic Opera -ensemble ﬁnales began to appear in comic operas -ex. comic operas of Nicola Logroscino and Baldassare Galuppi -totally new type of music that had to follow action of the scene without falling apart musically -the elements of Italian comic opera (periods, easy to remember melodies, simple harmony, minimal accompaniment, and entertaining/comic plots) became important parts of music of the time and into the latter part of the 1700s Opera Seria -opera seria - serious opera -opera seria begun by Pietro Metastasio -began the standard form of opera seria -works tried to promote virtue and followed along with ideals of the Enlightenment -typically three acts of alternating recitatives and arias -recitatives would develop plot through dialogue -arias were used when a particular character was expressing their feelings -orchestra was not viewed as important but became increasingly more so The Aria -arias were most musically interesting portion of opera seria -the da capo form for the aria remained popular (ABA) 1) ritornello 2) vocal 3) contrasting B section, d.c. (often a different key for the B section) 4) repeat ritornello and vocal -arias began to reﬂect a variety of moods throughout as opposed to just one -Johann Adolf Hasse (1699-1783) -very famous opera seria composer -married acclaimed Italian soprano Faustian Bordoni -music reﬂected Italian style -many of his operas utilize Matastasio librettos/poetry Opera in Other Languages -comic opera was very popular internationally and took on different forms that depended upon the country -popularity of comic opera brought about two ideas: -singing should be clear/simple and easy to understand -growth of distinct national styles France -Paris became divided over those who enjoyed French opera and those who supported the Italian style -Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) supported Italian composers for their skill in writing melodies that were both expressive and simple -opera comique - French opera with spoken dialogue -spoken dialogue was used as opposed to recitative -eventually opera comique turned to serious plots to reﬂect issues leading up to/during the French Revolution England -ballad opera - English popular opera -spoken dialogue with songs set to popular tunes (ex. folk songs) -over time composers wrote their own music -most successful ballad opera was The Beggar’s Opera Germany and Austria -Singspiel - German comic opera with spoken dialogue and musical numbers -important in that it paved the way for German-language musical theater -ex. composers like Mozart Opera and the Public -all international were initially only supported by the middle and lower classes of society -encouraged the styles to change to ﬁt the regional audience -middle-class public remains important in inﬂuencing musical change as the 18th century continues Opera Reform -as Italian opera developed it showed evidence of Enlightenment thought -more simple, but expressive and a more ﬂexible structure -ensemble/choruses was used more to add to drama, orchestra was more important in portraying mood -two important composers in imposing this reform were Niccolò Jommelli (1714-1774) and Tommaso Traetta (1727-1779) -both worked at important courts in Italy and therefore inﬂuenced upper class Christoph Willibald Gluck -Gluck was very accomplished at many styles of opera -worked to make the overture more important and get rid of not simple to understand forms/ styles -ex. da capo aria, ornamental singers -Gluck also worked to change the general direction of opera to make it more natural -inﬂuenced by French tragédie lyrique -Gluck contributed to the opera scene by utilizing both solos and choruses, the orchestra, and ballet -became a model for future composers in opera, particularly in France
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