Psych 367: Health Psychology
Psych 367: Health Psychology PSY 367
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Nesbitt on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 367 at Grand Valley State University taught by Amanda Dillard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Health Psychology Week 3 Systems of the Body o Nervous System Techniques to study the brain Lesions- brain tissues destroyed or damaged o With animals like rats? Can do experiments Ex) rats & maze experiment o With humans? People with NATURALLY occurring brain damage & compare with people who have fully functioning brain **not a true experiment because no control of anything Retrospective research Person with brain damage, talk with family/friends on how/what person was like BEFORE the damage occurred Electroencephalogram (EEG)- records electrical activity on surface of brain (electrodes attached to scalp) o Advantages- can tell where most activity occurs in brain during task, speed of results, cheap o Disadvantages- can’t look inside brain for structure/size MRI- takes a picture of brain; can detect structural changes between people & over time o Ex) size of brain over time with drug abuse fMRI- “tool of choice”; look at function not just structure where in the brain is the most energy being used during a task? o Ex) seeing what part of the brain is used during a learning task o Endocrine System Another communication system, but with hormones Slower acting compared to nervous system takes longer to affect the body, effects on body last longer Controlled by hypothalamus & pituitary gland Pituitary gland: releases hormones that influence LOTS of functions (growth, sexual development, reproduction, aging, kidney function) o Posterior pituitary: Oxytocin- involved in contractions during labor & lactation Antidiuretic hormone- controls water absorbing ability of the kidneys o Anterior pituitary: *hormones for growth Somatotropic hormone- regulates bone, muscle & organ development Gonadotropic hormones- growth, development & secretions of gonads Thyrotropic hormone- growth, development & secretion of thyroid gland Adrenocorticotropic hormone- growth & secretion of cortex region of the adrenal glands Disorders Type 1 diabetes- partly genetic; autoimmune disorder; body destroys cells that help make insulin “insulin-dependent diabetes” Type 2 diabetes- more common form; body produces insulin but it’s not effective; associated with which lifestyle factors? o Obesity, stress o Cardiovascular System Consists of blood, blood vessels, and heart Blood transports oxygen (lungstissues), carbon dioxide (tissueslungs), nutrients (digestive tracttissues/cells), waste products (tissueskidneys), and hormones to different organs o Arteries & veins- what are their respective jobs? Arteries carry blood from the heart Veins carry blood to the heart Heart functions as a pump; two cardiac phases o Systole- muscle contraction= pump blood out of heart & blood pressure increases o Diastole- muscle relaxation= blood taken into heart & blood pressure decreases o Valves in the heart & arteries make sure that blood flows in one direction o Heart rate is influenced by many factors (exercise, emotional excitement, stress) o **amount of blood flowing in the veins regulates heart rate Disorders Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) o Atherosclerosis- plaque narrows arteries & reduces blood flow through arteries; “disease of lifestyle” o Clinical conditions associated with CVD Angina- “chest pain”, muscle tissue of heart must continue activity w/out sufficient oxygen Myocardial infarction- caused by clot in coronary vessel & blocks blood flow to heart, AKA heart attack Hypertension- elevated blood pressure o Respiratory System Three main functions Take in oxygen Release carbon dioxide Regulate blood Alveoli capillaries in lungs responsible for exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide Inspiration= active process & contraction of muscles Expiration= passive process & relaxation of lungs reduces volume of lungs Works closely with which part of the brain? MEDULLA Gets dust and foreign particles out of body by coughing Disorders: Hay Fever- seasonal allergic reaction o Pollen, dust, airborne allergens Asthma- more serious allergic reaction o Asthma attack Viral & bacterial infections o Strep throat, whooping cough o Common cold, influenza, pneumonia, bronchitis Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer (uncontrolled cell growth in lung tissue produce tumor), and emphysema (persistent obstruction of flow of air; exhalation becomes difficult & forced) o Immune System Immunity- body’s resistance to invading organisms Two ways immunity develops: o Natural- acquired by disease o Artificial- vaccinations & inoculations Nonspecific & specific immunity o Nonspecific- general response to any infection/disease; mediated by anatomical barriers (skin), phagocytosis (WBCs “eating” microbes), antimicrobial substances, inflammatory response o Specific- fight against particular microorganisms & their toxins, TWO TYPES OF REACTIONS Humoral- B lymphocytes, protection against bacteria, neutralizing toxins, preventing viral infections Cell-mediated- T lymphocytes, operates at cellular level, T cells secrete chemicals that kill invading organisms & infected cells Health Behaviors o Health behaviors- behaviors people do that enhance/maintain their health May be performed once but not usually habit o Habit- a health behavior that is firmly established & often performed automatically o Risk behavior- behaviors people do that HARM their health Ex) smoking o Alameda county study- large longitudinal Began in 1965 Assessed 6,928 individual’s health behaviors, physical health, social & psych health What is relationship between health habits & mortality? *prospective & correlational study Example of measures: whether people diagnosed with CI; severity of CI (quality of life) A set of distinct health practices were associated with chronic illness Less likelihood of having one or more & less severe if they had one The behaviors were sleeping 7-8hrs, eating regular meals, getting regular exercise, limiting alcohol consumption & not smoking *cumulative effects 5 year follow up study examined mortality “Alameda 7”: sleeping 7-8hrs/night, not smoking, eating breakfast each day, having no more than 1-2 alcoholic drinks each day, getting regular exercise, not eating between meals, being no more than 10% overweight o Notable generalization studies Michigan study: ~3,000 adults from Michigan Significant associations between physical health status & smoking, weight, and physical activity, but not eating behaviors & sleep Mokdad, Marks, Stroup, and Gerberding (2004) Examined relationship between health behaviors & mortality o Meta-analysis that analyzed data from several large data sets o Interested in “actual causes” of death Health behaviors that lead to CIs Based on data collected in 1980s & 1990s from national sources o Findings Heart disease, stroke, & cancer had small declines as smoking rates decreased Obesity and diabetes increased as diet and physical activity changes occurred Tobacco was greatest risk for overall mortality compared to other risk behaviors despite changes in smoking because kids were not smoking but older people were dying who had been smoking Poor diet & physical inactivity close second Found that poor diet & physical inactivity increased 3 times the rate of tobacco o The independence of health behaviors Practice of one health behavior may not relate to the practice of another health behavior Newsom, McFarland, Kaplan, Huguet, and Zani (2004) 250,000 respondents from 4 large epidemiological studies in U.S. & Canada Measures included alcohol consumption, exercise, smoking, and dietary behaviors o Alcohol: # of drinks per week or month o Exercise: # of times per month exercise for 10 minutes o Smoking: yes or no How much shared variance? o Correlation= .10 o Strongest correlation: smoking & diet o Instability of health behaviors Relapse: tendency for people to revert to a previous behavior after initial successful change Differs from lapse because a lapse is a one-time slip and a relapse is regular occasions of behavior Rates for addictive behaviors such as alcoholism & smoking? 50-90% What happens to relapse rate with each time? Decreases Conditions in which people are likely to relapse? Biological- physical craving & biological predisposition Low self-efficacy (belief in self) Affect/mood Social support Situations/places o Unstable The chipper (Shiffman, 2006) Type of intermittent smoker that may not be dependent on nicotine How do chippers not fit our traditional definition of smoker habit? o Natural course of smoking is to increase the behavior of smoking over time & they usually have physical addiction o Chipper does not increase smoking behavior over time & they don’t seem to have an addiction to nicotine The chipper compared to nonsmokers & regular smokers o They are similar in many ways except: Sensation seeking (chippers increase compare to nonsmokers); self-control & impulsivity (regular smokers scored lower on self-control & higher on impulsivity compared to chippers) o Shiffman, Paty, Gnys, Kassel, and Celeste (1995) Method: Regular smokers & chippers carried palm pilots for two 2-day periods (no smoking & allowed to smoke) Reported cravings, mood, and sleep disturbance; also completed cognitive tasks Random assignment for which two-day period came first Results: Craving- regular smokers reported more intense cravings Mood disturbance- reported as irritability, regular smokers were more irritable when they didn’t smoke Sleep disturbance- regular smokers had poorer sleep when not smoking Cognitive tasks: o Chipper reaction time not affected but regular smoker reaction time much slower during non-smoking period Theories in Health Psychology o What is a theory? A set of analytic statements that explain a set of phenomena It can be applied, tested, & combine/organize to explain phenomena 1/3 of health psychology studies use theories 5 levels of influence for health behavior Intrapersonal- individual characteristics that influences behavior Interpersonal- family/friends Institutional- rules, regulations Community- social networks & norms/standards Public policy- local, state, & federal policies “Cognitive-Behavioral” Intrapersonal & interpersonal level theories Behavior is mediated by cognitions; that is what people know & think affect how they act Knowledge is necessary for, but not sufficient to produce most behavioral changes Perceptions, motivations, skills & the social environment are key influences on behavior o Attitudes Attitude- a favorable /unfavorable evaluative reaction toward someone/something exhibited in feelings, beliefs, and/or behavior
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