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Introduction to Philosophy as a Study (part 1)

by: Ashley Childers

Introduction to Philosophy as a Study (part 1) PHI 151

Marketplace > University of Southern Mississippi > PHIL-Philosophy > PHI 151 > Introduction to Philosophy as a Study part 1
Ashley Childers
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Introduction to Philosophy as a whole study, including the four main categories and the beginnings of the Socratic Method.
Introduction to Philosophy
Paula Smithka
Class Notes
philosophy, Socrates




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Childers on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 151 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Paula Smithka in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Southern Mississippi.

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Date Created: 01/31/16
Introduction to Philosophy Term scientist coined in nineteenth century by English man William Whewell. - Previously they were referred to as Natural Philosophers Philosophy: (ancient Greek) - Philein: to love - Sophia: wisdom - “the love of Wisdom” Socrates (469-399BCE) - Knowing that one does not know (on definition of wisdom) - Possibility of questioning - Aristotle (384-322): “philosophy begins in wonder” Philosophy - Fundamental Questions o Timeless: applicable no matter the context, culture, or era o Abstract o Nature of how things work o Nature of reality, is it all just an illusion? o Deities o Meanings/purposes o Reasoning  What’s the difference? Is there a difference?  Example: mind & brain o Ethics/morality - Knowledge: what exactly is it Philosophy  Philosophical “Fundamentals” in Review o Philosophy: love of wisdom  Knowing that you don’t know o Asking fundamental questions  Fundamental assumptions-  Are these ideas/beliefs your own? o Tools of a Philosopher  Mind  Argumentation  Philosophy is a “big umbrella”- Areas of Philosophical Inquiry o Metaphysics  The study of the nature of reality  Appearance (illusion) vs. reality o The “matrix” issue  The God issue  Numbers o Empirical: observable/relies on senses o Is the universe made of numbers o Epistemology- the study of knowledge  What is knowledge? What counts as knowledge?  Criteria for knowledge o Certainty?  Death  Gravity o Probability?  If it is possible then there is not exact certainly.  Degrees of Probability  Can anything ever be 100% certain  Justified True Belief (JTB) o Beliefs (personal) not JTB  (Doesn’t have to be accurate)  Examples:  Hollow Earth  Flat World o Has to be accurate! o Has to be accepted  Sources of Knowledge: o Empirical data (sense)  Empiricist  Senses are best source of knowledge o Reason  Rene Descartes  Serves as a correcting device for the senses  Rationalist o Logic- the study of Reason  Foundation of Math, computers, o Ethics- the study of Value  Axiology- the value theory  Mixes Ethics and Aesthetics  Morals  What is right or wrong  Possible origins o Religions o Those who were in power in ancient times o Culture  What is the case VS. What ought to be the case: o Cultural relativism  Each culture should establish own customs and morals  Utilitarianism o Good of the great over the good of the few  Actions are fine if most agree  Deontology o Duty based morality o Not compatible with Utilitarianism  Aesthetics  Art and Beautiful o What makes something beauty  Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder  There are certain standards  Symmetry (Greeks)  Appeals to the senses  What counts as art/music? o Forgery? o Cover artist?  Social & Political Philosophy  What is justice o Martin L. King Jr. o Plato’s Republic  Notions of Government o Democracy o Monarchy  Equality o Sexism, o Racism, o Gender issues etc.  General areas of inquiry  Science o What counts as a law of nature  How do things burn?  Phlogiston vs. Oxygen o Physics  Structure of the universe  Substantivalist- the stretching of space-time  Reality of time  What is the nature of time? o Growing block theory o The idea that all of time already exist o Biology  Biological species definition  Ernst Mayr o Chemistry  History o Methodologies to examine history  Literature  Sport o What qualifies? o What do the relative statistics mean?  Socrates & the Examined life  Socrates (469-399BCE)  Apart of the oral traditions  Plato (427-347BCE)  Student of Socrates  First philosopher to begin to write things down o Called dialogues o Socrates is the main character in many  Searching for the Truth  “Better is the soul” o The Socratic Method  Puts out question  Thinks about and questions the answers  Goal is to find the truth o What is Justice? (from The Republic) o The strategy of: Reduction ad absurdam o The trail and death of Socrates (The Apology)  The Role of Gadflies in society


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