Introduction to Philosophy as a Study (part 1)
Introduction to Philosophy as a Study (part 1) PHI 151
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Childers on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 151 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Paula Smithka in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Introduction to Philosophy Term scientist coined in nineteenth century by English man William Whewell. - Previously they were referred to as Natural Philosophers Philosophy: (ancient Greek) - Philein: to love - Sophia: wisdom - “the love of Wisdom” Socrates (469-399BCE) - Knowing that one does not know (on definition of wisdom) - Possibility of questioning - Aristotle (384-322): “philosophy begins in wonder” Philosophy - Fundamental Questions o Timeless: applicable no matter the context, culture, or era o Abstract o Nature of how things work o Nature of reality, is it all just an illusion? o Deities o Meanings/purposes o Reasoning What’s the difference? Is there a difference? Example: mind & brain o Ethics/morality - Knowledge: what exactly is it Philosophy Philosophical “Fundamentals” in Review o Philosophy: love of wisdom Knowing that you don’t know o Asking fundamental questions Fundamental assumptions- Are these ideas/beliefs your own? o Tools of a Philosopher Mind Argumentation Philosophy is a “big umbrella”- Areas of Philosophical Inquiry o Metaphysics The study of the nature of reality Appearance (illusion) vs. reality o The “matrix” issue The God issue Numbers o Empirical: observable/relies on senses o Is the universe made of numbers o Epistemology- the study of knowledge What is knowledge? What counts as knowledge? Criteria for knowledge o Certainty? Death Gravity o Probability? If it is possible then there is not exact certainly. Degrees of Probability Can anything ever be 100% certain Justified True Belief (JTB) o Beliefs (personal) not JTB (Doesn’t have to be accurate) Examples: Hollow Earth Flat World o Has to be accurate! o Has to be accepted Sources of Knowledge: o Empirical data (sense) Empiricist Senses are best source of knowledge o Reason Rene Descartes Serves as a correcting device for the senses Rationalist o Logic- the study of Reason Foundation of Math, computers, o Ethics- the study of Value Axiology- the value theory Mixes Ethics and Aesthetics Morals What is right or wrong Possible origins o Religions o Those who were in power in ancient times o Culture What is the case VS. What ought to be the case: o Cultural relativism Each culture should establish own customs and morals Utilitarianism o Good of the great over the good of the few Actions are fine if most agree Deontology o Duty based morality o Not compatible with Utilitarianism Aesthetics Art and Beautiful o What makes something beauty Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder There are certain standards Symmetry (Greeks) Appeals to the senses What counts as art/music? o Forgery? o Cover artist? Social & Political Philosophy What is justice o Martin L. King Jr. o Plato’s Republic Notions of Government o Democracy o Monarchy Equality o Sexism, o Racism, o Gender issues etc. General areas of inquiry Science o What counts as a law of nature How do things burn? Phlogiston vs. Oxygen o Physics Structure of the universe Substantivalist- the stretching of space-time Reality of time What is the nature of time? o Growing block theory o The idea that all of time already exist o Biology Biological species definition Ernst Mayr o Chemistry History o Methodologies to examine history Literature Sport o What qualifies? o What do the relative statistics mean? Socrates & the Examined life Socrates (469-399BCE) Apart of the oral traditions Plato (427-347BCE) Student of Socrates First philosopher to begin to write things down o Called dialogues o Socrates is the main character in many Searching for the Truth “Better is the soul” o The Socratic Method Puts out question Thinks about and questions the answers Goal is to find the truth o What is Justice? (from The Republic) o The strategy of: Reduction ad absurdam o The trail and death of Socrates (The Apology) The Role of Gadflies in society
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