History 150: Medieval Period
History 150: Medieval Period History 150
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tera Frame on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Malone in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
January 25-29, 2016 ****Office Hours=Wed. 2-5**** Medieval Society: Western Europe in the High Middle Ages The Middle Ages6 -14 centuries Focus will be on select aspects of the High Middle Ages, 11 -14th th centuries Technically have royalty (kings/queens), but the nobility has the real power o Power rests on possession of land and personal armies Overly centered on agriculture The medieval conception of social society: o The three orders (born into it): (1)Those Who Fight (rep. by The Knight) Defender of society Nobles acquired military power through a ceremony known as vassalage (a ceremony in which a knight pledges his personal loyalty and military service to a nobleman; the knight becomes a vassal and the nobleman became his lord; in return, the lord gave the vassal a fief)vassal becomes lord of the fief o Fief=valuable land containing a manor or manors with serfs (un-free peasants) The warrior ethos: like to fight so much that the Catholic Church stepped in and initiated “Truce of God” (11 c) only partially effective o Truce of God: (Initial Idea) placed a ban on warfare from mid-afternoon on Saturday until daybreak on Monday; (second attempt) Wednesday evening through Monday morning as well as seasons of Advent and Lent o Violation: excommunication from the church Tournaments were used for entertainment but mostly for training for battle (think jousting and hunting) (2)Those Who Pray (rep. by The Monk) (3)Those Who Work (rep. by The Peasant) Bulk of people were those who work Free and unfree peasants (serfs) lived and worked on manors o Manors=agricultural estates o Ex: Manor of Elton of England (late 13 th c.) Extremely large (1900 acres; 500- 600 people) Features: Crop rotation Land divided in strips (each strip given to a peasant) Village in center (homes of serf, church, separated from lord’s section of the land) Lord’s manor house and property (own orchard, garden, mill, oven, press) There was common land that the serfs could share Conditions of Serfdom: o Serfs were bound to the land; they could not leave the land without the Lord’s consent o Serfs were under the jurisdiction of the Monoriol Court Plowing under the influence (ill- plowing) was a major problem and caused fines o Power of the lord extended to matters, such as marriage. Although free to marry, a serf could not marry a person outside of the manor without the Lord’s permission. Lord’s more often arranged marriages o The serf owed the Lord LABOR 117 days a year o The serf owed the Lord feudal dues Use of oven: give a portion of the grain or bread to the Lord IN RERURN: o The serf received protection from the Lord but also a plot of land to work for his family’s sustenance Work for Serfs: o Work=central part of their lives (important to survival) o Work was different for males and females except for harvesting the crops o Men: plowing, manual labor, working their own plot of land o Women: in/around the house, tending to animals (chicken and cows), gardens, clothing, caring for children, cooking food Food: o English Serf diet: Bread, portage (think oatmeal), ale Peasants consumed more eggs, cheese, peas, leek, and rarely meat (pork/mutton) if needed protein/fat The Medieval University and University Life First Universities established: o Bologna, Italy (1158) o Paris (1200) o Oxford (1208) o Cambridge (1209) By the end of the Middle Ages there were 80 universities in Europe Inhabited by the sons of merchants, doctors, lawyers o 12-15 years old when they entered, needed money, needed to know how to read/write latin (all universities used latin) o They would choose one professor (careful selection of a master) The Curriculum: o All Students Studied the 7 Liberal Arts: 1. Grammar 2. Rhetoric 3. Logic 4. Math 5. Geometry 6. Astronomy 7. Music Scholastic day: o Went from 5 or 6 am until 10 until dinner, then more hours in the afternoon, studied, in bed by 8pm Method of Instruction: o The lecture (to read); classroom (teach with podium; read textbook to you) o Many students could not afford books because the books were copied by hand (if you think our textbooks are expensive, think again) 2.5 months for 200 pages, 6-8 months for longer texts; taking notes was VERY useful since they did not have access to the books) They could rent books to copy them, but they were chained up to prevent theft Had to swear that they would obey laws while in the library (took very seriously) Exams and Degrees: o Would take a comprehensive oral exam after 4 years of study; if passed, received a Bachelor of Arts Degree o After 2 more years, received a Maters o After 10 more years, students could get a doctorate in law, medicine, and theology (average life span: mid 40s…puts graduating in late 20s at earliest-more than half life gone) o Graduation rates=less than 50%; due to highly demanding courses, much memorization, lost of interest/ability/money Career option for university graduates: o Teaching (most did not opt for this career path) TQ! Needed to have a masters degree to teach the 7 liberal arts Needed doctorate to teach law, medicine, and theology o Work as a lawyer/doctor o Clerk, administrator, or advisor in the bureaucracies set up by Princes, Kings, or Popes Living options for University Students o Students could live independently, in apts, rented houses, residence halls, etc. o Regulations for Robert de Sorbon’s residence hall Adhere to dress code (think graduation gowns….all the time! ) No women Safeguarding the books in the residence hall (no lending, no taking outside the residence hall) Do not talk too loudly at the dinner table Student Behavior o Good Student: Lived a very simple life, simple meals, shared one gown with his roommate, only had simple tunics, serious about studies, very boring However stated best time of his life? o Bad Student: Defraud masters of due salaries for schooling although they are able to pay (TQ!) Bad students rather spend money in taverns/games/conviviality Disobedient to masters (TQ!) On feast days they do not go to church/only going to see the girls (not pious) Learned things that were forbidden (forbidden sciences (Aristotle Natural Science), anatomy discourses (lol), and superstitions) Interacting in disgraceful societies (think frats) Letters from parents to students o Father to Son Telling to change behavior and perform better o Son to Father “I send you words of greetings and of MONEY (things don’t change) Probably used a professional letter writer Compelling arguments (you are my source of money, my books are tattered, I owe officials, I fear being excommunicated)
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