Week Notes for Intro to Ethics!
Week Notes for Intro to Ethics! PHI2600
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Midhu Robin on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHI2600 at Florida International University taught by Noel Alphonse in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 312 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY in PHIL-Philosophy at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Chapter 2 Test Review Ethical Relativisms Personal Relativism: The doctrine that what makes an action right is that one approves of it. (Adolf Hitler Ethical beliefs) Ethical judgments and beliefs are the expressions of the moral outlook and attitudes of individual persons. Cultural Relativism: The view that what makes an action is right is that is approved by one’s culture. Advantages to cultural relativism? Does not make individuals morally infallible (Just by having a view, doesn’t mean it is correct) Does not make moral disagreement impossible. Custom is the Law of Fools Problems of cultural relativism? Cultures are morally infallible Which society are you going to adhere to? Not about public opinion! Problems for Cultural Relativism Which culture? What happens if the dominant culture changes in views? - My family? - My state? - My country? (Consider 52% consider certain behavior just, and 48%) Absolutism: The view that moral rules and principles - Have no exceptions - Context- Independent (Abortion is wrong whether the circumstances) Individual Relativism: Consider your feelings in order to solve a personal moral problems. - What you want to know is not how I DO feel but how I OUGHT to feel. - Which is NOT relativism. (The feeling) The hidden objective value in the Relativist Position - Relativism is a more TOLERANT position - Other CULTURES (persons) SHOULD be TOLERANT of our moral views. - Our culture should be tolerant of others as well. - In conclusion, Tolerance is an objective or transcultural value, other cultures may be closer to the truth. Intrinsic Vs. Instrumental Value (Another problem) - Something is instrumentally valuable if it is valuable because of the goods it brings about. - Something is intrinsically valuable if its valuable for its own sake. ****READ ETHICAL PULIRSIM AND ABSOLUTE MORAL VIEWS (CHAPTER 19, 289-304)***** Reasons to be an Ethical/Moral Relativist Moral Uncertainty Moral Diversity Situational Differences Cultural Relativism (Cultural differences) Personal Relativism Opinion? Moral Standards More Tolerant Consider your feelings Moral Skepticism Ethical Relativist: Everyone has their own opinion, their own truth. Moral realist: Facts demand a different ethical response from you. Moral Skepticism: The denial of objective or subjective moral standards. Reasons not to be an Ethical/Moral Relativist Skepticism Facts Objectivism Absolutism Absolutism Instantly wrong? /Truth Does not make it right Objective Ought Not relativist What moral objectivism is? Realism - There exits a reality (mind independent) of those who know it. Ethics - Ethical judgments are in relation to a set of mind independent facts. Ethical Egoism: The ethics of self-interest Why be moral? Or who cares about Ethics? Descriptive - People are basically selfish (Act in their best self interest) - Psychological Egoism - Problem one: Easily refuted Psychological Egoism: People usually (or always) act in their self interest. Is it true? - Problem two: unfalsifiable - Falsifiability or refutability is the logical possibility that an assertion could be shown false by a particular observation or psychical experiment - Falsifiability is impossible to prove A good theory: Derivation from economics? - Self interest provides the best economic motivation - Self interest provides the BEST MORAL motivation - Everyone ought to seek his or her own best interest (because it contributes to overall well-being). - Adam Smith - “The Invisible Hand” What about those that can not compete? - Problem 3 - Not Egoism but Utilitarianism!
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