week three notes
week three notes ARTH1001
Popular in History of Art 1
Popular in Art History
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Drake Lundstrom on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH1001 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Erin Hackmann in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see History of Art 1 in Art History at The University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Week 3 Notes: Monday, 1/25/2016 (review) Mesopotamia is the land between the rivers. Important for many ‘first’, such as the first written language: cuneiform Votive figures: fihures of normal people pun in the ziggurats to represent worshippers. Bull Lyer: Put in the grave of an important person, with pictures from the epic of gilgaesh on the front. Head of a man, made with lost wax casting. Made by very skilled artisan, and believed to be in a terrible shape because of enemies defacing the sculpture. (New stuff): A stele is a stone/slab in public has a carved surface. It is usually a public monument. Hieratic scale: the size of someone in a picture represents their importance. Stele of Naram-Sin: Naram-Sin is the grandson of argon. This particular stele represents the power of Naram-Sin, showing him literally trampling on his enemies. Believed to be essentially propaganda, showing how powerful he is. He is in composite pose, which is with the legs facing the side and chest facing forwards. He wears horns, which are commonly associated with divinity in their culture. The two stars above are sending down rays of text inscribed with his divinely sanctioned victory. Guti: the group that took over after the akkadian empire. Gudea, one of the rulers, placed Votive statues of himself in many temples. The staues were made of diorite. His statues have a long robe, inscribed with cuneiform. He was made to represent both a ruler bringing abundance to his land, and to represent the god of the Enki, the god of the primordial sea. Gudea’s personal seal also represents himself being presented to Enki by another god. Hammurabi is again unites Mesopotamia. He establishes his capital in Babylon and is best known for his written laws, the first code of laws known in history. Stele of Hammurabi, made of diorite. There were many copies of this stele, covered in over 300 laws, that were distributed across the land. These were more a series of presidents than laws, detailing specific punishments. They are very biased in many cases, At the top are Hammurabi and Shamaash (the god of justice). This is put there to show how the laws of the king are the same as those of the gods. th th Assyrians take over and control Mesopotamia from the 9 century BCE to the 7 century, when it collapsed. Huge capital cities were created and dedicated, with a new capital city often being created for each new king. The palaces would also have many carvings and decorations on the wall. Assunasirpal II killing lions: One of the many relief sculptures in palaces. Shows the power of the king, in killing a lion. Unlike older art in Mesopotamia, this relief shows movement. A dynamic scene with rippling muscles and the like is a never new kind of art. Sargon II. He once again commissioned a new palace, this one overlooking the capital city. Not ony was it built on a 40 foot high platform, but it was large enough to contain a 7 story hight ziggurat that had each level painted a different colour. When someone wants to enter the palace, they must pass by the lamassu, the guardians. So large, that there are even sculptures dedicated just to the feat of getting them in place. These huge figures also have 5 legs, so that you can see 2 legs from the front, and 4 legs when you are passing it on the side. Neo-Babylonians: rose to power next. Worked to rebuild the city of Babylon. This new and improved Babylon is the one much better known that appears in the bible and other stories, with a ziggurat being the tower of babel in the bible. Crenellation: the knotched tops of walls that is both decorative and used in defence. The wall surrounding the city has 8 gates, each named for a different god. The Ishnar gate is the best preserved. 40’ high gate, with 100’ high towers. Ishtar is a goddess of lover, fertility, and war. Adad, a storm god. Mardok, a storm god. Those three gods are represented by animals on the walls. Persian empire: Darius, king of kings, starts instituting roads and the like to simplify control of his empire, and manages to stabilize it. Prescepolis: a city the is in modern day Iraq and the capital city. Full of art from about the empire. One relief in the palace shows Darius and Xerxes receiving tribute. (Now we are talking about the paper and blackboard recourses) At least 3 sources must be used for the resource paper. (Daap library is recomended). The metropolitan museum of art in New York: thematic essays has story essays about many different pieces of art. Oxford art online is essentially an encyclopedia of art, but must be accessed from UC or with a UC proxy log in. JSTOR has much more in depth journals that can be used in our research. Also, the art works we see will probably not be that world famous, so instead of researching them directly, we may need to instead look at the artist and style as a whole. (bibliograpghy in Chicago style.) Wednesday, 1/27/2016 Youtube lecture notes: Ancient Egypt: Rosetta stone: a breakthrough point that allowed the first translations of the Egyptian language: same text written in three different languages, including ancient greek (which was a known language). Egypt developed along nile river (longest river in the world). The river is of monumental importance to the cultures there, and its flooding could be controlled through a series of dams. Early Dynastic period: kingship develops and unifies upper (southern) and lower (northern) Egypt. Polytheistic regilgion, gods are very important, and the gods are sometimes represented as humans. Anubis, Osiris, and Horus are the gods that we need to know, since they often show up in art. Religion was a central part of life, and kings are considered gods in human form Bas relief sculpture: material is carved away to reveal raised 3d forms. The Palette of Narmer: shows kings as gods in human form. Earliest example of bas relief sculpture. A ceremonial piece possibly used to mix the king’s eye makeup. Most people used eye makeup. Guarded against bug and glare from sun. Also had spiritual importance. The Palette celebrates the unification of Egypt by Narmer. Hieratic scale (big is important) is used again in this and many pieces of ancient art. He wears the crown up upper Egypt, and there are lower Egyptian symbols mixed in. Gods are also shown, such as Horus, show as a falcon and a cow goddess. The king’s name being between two pictures of gods is meant to show him being at the same level as gods. On the front, Narmer has the crown of lower Egypt, and there are two felines with intertwined necks, possibly showing the unification of upper and lower Egypt. The kings is shown in composite view, which is unnatural but shows more power, and the others are shown in profile. Ancient Egyptian art conventions: Realism is not important. The concept and idea are more important than reality. Art was not made for the purpose of art: it will usually have a clear function, such as propaganda Images are distilled and simpled down to show the ideal: for example, composite view shows every part of a person, and every person is drawn with a grid format and set geometry to draw a person, not looking at the actual person. Much is know about death and afterlife, since much of art was ceremonial about death, and huge monuments where built for the royal dead. The believed that soul had many parts, the ka being the most important part. Ka is life force, continues after death if body is preserved (hence, mummification). After death, important organs are removed and stored separately in canopic jars. The ka also needed to be provided with food, drinks, clothing, furniture, and so on. Offerings were brought to temples, and walls were decorated with drawings of servants preforming task for the kings so serve eternally after death. The tombs were literal houses for the dead. Tomb architecture: Mastaba: earliest for of tomb. Flat, one story building. Common for a long time. Contains room for diseased, chapel for prayers/offerings, and an underground burial chamber (or multiple for families). These were built in necropolis, a city of the dead on the west bank of the nile. Step Pyramid: Eventually replaces Mastaba. Has complex system of underground rooms, like mastaba. Though astatically similar to ziggurat, its use is very different. Step pyramid is for burial and for steps up to sun god for the king’s soul. Pyramid: Huge structures. With all of the wealth buried there, robbers became a threat, and traps and false passageways were added to deter and stop them. However, it is rare to find a tomb that has not been plundered. Saqqara: a necropolis for the capital, Memphis. Contained the grave of king Djoser. One of the earliest examples of monumental architecture. Access to the inside of the complex was tightly regulated. There were many fake buldings in the complex (stone filled with rummble). It is also important since we know who designed it, the first recorded artist in history: Imhotep. Imhotep was also the prime minister, his name was enscribed near the king. The step pyramid had been enlarged twice, and declared the absolute power of the king. Hundered of underground rooms and tunnels existed under the palace. History divided into many segments, but we are only looking at old and new kingdom. The great pyramids of Giza were made during the old kingdom, with the pharaohs having great power at the time. The pyramids are the oldestthf the 7 ancient wonders of the world, serving as tombs for 3 successive 4 dynasty pharaohs. These true pyramids had important significance, looking like an emblem of the sun god, making them a ladder to the sun. The pyramids used to look different, covered in limestone, and covered in a gilded cap. The pyramids were difficult to make, with each stone extracted from a quarry and carried to the pyramid, and scholars disagree with the exact method used in construction. Though we think of the pyramids as isolated, they were one part of a tomb complex, including nearby funerary temples, valley temples on the bank of the nile, and so on. The great Sphinx: the largest sculpture carved from a single block of stone. A colossus is any statue over life size, and the sphix matches that. The statue probably represented the pharaoh, and would have had the ceremonial beard and hat thing. Believed to represent Khafre. The sphinx was asosiated with Rah and lions, which as associated with kingship, making it a great symbol for kings. Friday, 1/29/2016 Youtube lecture notes Statue of Khafre found in funerary temple. Horus is on back of throne, folding wings over the head of the king. Many carvings on base of the statue. He is dressed in the traditional clothes of a pharoh, and the whole statue is made of important imported stone. Stone is used by Egyptians to stand the test of time. Many statues are painted, but this one was not to show how eternal it is, and the stone had neat properties when hit with light. The most important part of this statue is that Khafre has an idealized form, no flaws or irregularities that normal people have. In fact, he was idealized to the point of being generic. The statue just showed his status. Also, the ka could move around the temple from the bady and into statues of their likeness. Menkaure and a queen: Expression of a king and power. In a traditional standing pose, and is idealized. She is slightly shorter and has smaller step, showing her slightly behind/below. Dyad: statue of a husband and wife, common in ancient Egypt. They were not just of royalty, but also common people. Priest and wife, shows difference between man and wife. Seated scribe: opposite of the kings’ statues. A much lower figure than the divine pharaoh. The scribe sits on floor, not throne. No fancy clothes. Imperfect body, could represent his lie of work. Is more lifelike and painted. Represents individual and vocation. Tombs often contain murals and relief paintings. Show deceased engaged in activities, hunting being a common one. In ancient Egypt, successful hunt symbolizes triumph over evil. Hippos were embodiment of set, god of chaos. New kindom: wealthy ruler had huge building project with forts, palaces, temples, and so on. The great temple of Amun, renovated and expanded many times. Included even a sacred lake to cleanse those coming to the temple. These temples are homes to the gods, so they originally stated off as small houses with a gate and the like, and kept expanding into huge palaces with walls and chapels. The sanctuary itself contained a statue of the god and only priest and pharaohs were allowed to enter the most sacred part. Every day the statue is washed and clothed and fed the spirit of food. The hypostyle hall (a flat roof supported by columns) is very impressive. A clerestory lets in light and air and is a huge innovation by the Egyptians. It allows in natural lighting. Hatshepsut kneeling. Hatshepsut was one of the most important ladies of the ancient world, and ruled ancient Egypt. After her stepbrother/husband died, she became regent with her young son and the later became co-ruler with her son. Whenever she is shown, she is represented as a man in every way. She is represented the same way as every other king. Also, after her death, her son ordered the destruction of many of her statues. Funerary temple of Hatshepsut, only for burial rights, commemorative ceremonies, and the like. She wa actually buried in the valley of the kings. Also, the relationship has changed. It used to be tomb large and temple small and pretty nearby. Now, the tomb is hidden underground in the desert, and the funerary temple is huge and elaborate, and they are separated by a mile. And of course, a sanctuary to the sun god stood on the top of the temple.
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