JohnCampbellvideoandNatureDeities.pdf CC 205 1
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassandra Miller on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CC 205 1 at Ball State University taught by King in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Mythologies of the World in Classical Studies at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
The message of the myth Monday, January 25, 2016 10:58 AM Genesis- there was darkness God said let there be light and there was Indian legend - darkness and water God said let there be light Hindu - only the great self There was a reflection of itself This am I Joseph Campbell Myths guide us through trails and tribulations Myths are stories of the search by men and women through the ages of meaning, to understand the mysterious, to find out who we are We are seeking an experience of being alive We want the life experiences we have to have a meaning We want to feel the rapture of being alive Myths are clues to the spiritual meaning of life Your own meaning is that you are there .. Here We forget the inner rapture of life God is a thought, idea, name - ultimate transcendent being References a meaning The best thing cant be told Second best is what is misunderstood Third is what we talk about Myth is transcendent - what cant be known Mask of eternity - mask of god When you move out of the make of eternity you get opposites Male and female Good and evil Dead and alive Significance Mask is the middle and the two represent the opposite Most of us put ourselves on the good side instead of in the middle One of the problems of humanity to live in the realization of both good and evil Christian Region Started with a sin They don’t realize they are different, man, woman, and god They eat the apple and realize the difference Man against god God against man Nature against man Nature against god God against nature Man against nature Natural impulses are sinful unless baptized or sercumsized Ancient Native American Myth Nature is corrupt - nature revels the divinity Japan Nature is not evil Every natural impulse is beautified Coordination of nature - you don’t know where nature ends and art begins India Greet you with praying hand Treat visiting guests as if you are a visiting deity Everything in the world is divine What are we looking for Experiencing the world in the way we are living Some accord with the mystery that explains all things - recognize that Devine presence in the world and in us Through the answer of creation the believers make realizations of their lives Pointing to the snake as being the one who points to sin Snake sheds its skin like the moon sheds its shadow Greek divinities associated with nature Monday, January 25, 2016 7:25 PM The diverse character of Zeus Nature God Storms Masculine Sexuality: Mates with countless goddesses and mortal women (115 partners) Offspring are legion Father, husband and lover A culture God Wrath god of justice and virtue Protection of travelers Greek Olympic games are held for Zeus Storm-god Ruler of the gods Was originally they youngest sibling Because he was not swallowed by Cronus, he is considered the oldest of the gods Known as the protector of travelers Trying to overthrow Zeus Hera, Poseidon and Apollo tie Zeus up Thetis is a sea nymph She tells a one hundred handed monster to save him Zeus strings up Hera by golden bracelets from the sky Apollo and Poseidon are forced to build the wall of Troy The oracles at Olympia and Dodona An important center for worship of Zeus Methods for eliciting a response form the god were by observation and interpretation of omens Two black doves flew from Thebes in Egypt One went to Libya Other went to Dodona Both told the people to establish an oracle in honor of Zeus Children of Zeus and Hera: Eileithyia Hebe, Hephaestus, and Ares Eileithyia - Goddess of childbirth One of Zeus and Hera's children Hebe and Ganymede - Cupbearers to the gods Hebe- goddess of youthful bloom Knows as the cupbearer for the deities on Olympus - servant of the gods Hercules wife Ganymede - Trojan Prince Shares honors with Hebe as a cupbearer of the gods Zeus carried off Ganymede to serve wine to the gods He then gives his father a brisk-trotting horse as a gift for his mourning of his disappeared son Ganymede is made immortal This may represent the spiritual calling of a young man by god Or it may hint to a homosexual desire to a bisexual Zeus Poseidon, Sea Deities, Group Divinities and Monsters Poseidon - great god of waters Peleus and Thetis Thetis was destined to bare a son mightier than his father Zeus avoided mating with her Thetis - possessed the power to change shapes Her son was Achilles Acis, Galatea, and the Cyclops Polyphemus pg 166 Galatea is loved by a cyclops She loves a sea nymph named Acis The cyclops sings a song about how he loves Galatea and has been rejected The cyclops threw a chunk out of a mountain at them killing Acis Acis's blood rushed through the mountain piece Turned blue Then a youth figure rose from the water It was Acis now a river-god Poseidon and Amphitrite Similar relationship as Zeus and Hera except in water Triton is their son He is a merman (half human/half fish) Proteus - sea divinity Attendant of Poseidon or even as his son Poseidon - water god God of earthquakes "earthshaker" deity of storms and earth quakes Originally a fresh water divinity Later Salt water - Mediterranean Depicted with a beard Carries a trident - three pronged fork Has a wilder temperament than Zeus Virile god: Associated with horses and bulls Also a sexual god Fathers some Heros Theseus Poseidon and Amphitrite Triton Scylla and charybdis Scylla was cursed and turned into a monster a bunch of dog heads This was after Poseidon made a move on her Tensions with Athena Poseidon and Athena (his niece) Athena is calm/civilized - Poseidon is the wildest god Competed to be the Patron of Athens Athena gives an olive tree Poseidon gives horses Athena wins but Poseidon is the second important Patron The progeny of Pontus and Ge They had a long family line Medusa is the most important Gorgon Interpretative summary All of these gods and stories about the rivers, lakes, ocean and seas tell of the importance of travel by sea Control of the Mediterranean was the key to power Many water myths are exciting and experience the beauty and grotesque aspects of the sea Demeter Mother Goddess and Fertility Goddess Associated with children not household She is a sexual goddess Brings life out of the womb and the soil She is the sister of Zeus, Hera, Hades, Daughter with Zeus is Persephone Son with someone else, Plutus (wealth) The myth of Demeter and Persephone Persephone and Demeter are picking flowers in a field Zeus gave Persephone to Hades as a wife Cronus captured her from earth Demeter searched the earth for 9 days When she found out she left Olympus and disguised herself as human on earth Wanders to Eleusis Two people offer her lodging and something to drink Demeter nurses Demophoon (the peoples son) Demeter gives the baby something to become immortal Metaneira - the mother is enraged when she catches Demeter putting Demophoon in the fire The kid is not immortal but close to the gods Because Demeter is depressed she has stopped crops form growing Zeus sends Hermes to persuade Hades to let Persephone go - gives Persephone a pomegranate to eat Demeter and Persephone are reunited Because she ate the pomegranate she must live with Hades part of the year Etiology for seasons This explains winter Triptolemus Acts a culture hero Works on behalf of Demeter to bring agriculture to humanity Roman Counter part of Demeter - Ceres Grain Earth goddess not mother goddess Associated with the common people Takeaways Fertility and nurturing of the ground, fertility and nurturing of humanity Person death, agricultural death Dead animals fertilize the ground so plants can grow The cycles of nature The independence of nature from civilizing control The limits of negotiation among gods Jupiter Great Italian sky god The Roman Counterpart: Jupiter Not a "man whore" Not a god of travel God of weather Father figure The Capitoline Triad - Jupiter/Zeus, Juno/Hera, Ninerva/Athena Agricultural and fertility divinities Nature Deities Thursday, January 28, 2016 5:27 PM Hebrew: Yahweh Yahweh as storm god Job's flawless character; debating the justice of punishing him Yahweh let satin kill jobs children, take away all of his riches and give job boils This was to test job's faith Yahweh lectures Job for questioning him Yahweh seems like a god who thinks he deserves to be worshiped because he controls everything in nature. Job repents so Yahweh gives him a new family and twice as much riches as before Takeaways An unsatisfying answer to job's complaint The transcendence of the (nature) divinity Japanese culture Shinto is the most common religion Based on locality, Kami (mysterious reality), nature, hierarchy Emphasizes shrines being made out of nature (wood) Emphasizes honor between people and hierarchies 80 thousand shrines to gods Care deeply about preserving nature Japanese: Amaterasu and Susanowo Amaterasu - sun goddess Shinto cult consider her to be the ancestor of the Japanese emperors This story is told by Padraic Colum Struggle between male and female creator gods Amaterasu is ruler of the heavens and sky She is benevolent and caring but has the ability of violence Took care of the harvests, plants, people, temples Her bother, Susanowo is ruler of the seas and storms Unruly and wild Tormented people and destroyed crops One day they made a truce They exchanged tokens Amaterasu gave jewels Susanowo gave his sword They drank from the high heaven's river, the Yasu and put the tokens in their mouths From Amaterasu was born a son From Susanowo was born gods of growth and power Harvest were plentiful for a while Amaterasu claims that all of the children are technically hers This upset Susanowo so he came forth from the waters again and destroyed crops and threw people around Amaterasu hid in a cavern and refused to come out The other 8 million gods cut off Susanowo's beard and took away his powers A god, Ohkuninushi, came and took his daughter and prized possessions Susanowo and his family lit a fire outside of Amaterasu's cavern and danced and sang in joy They brought Cocks, the birds of the high land Finally she came out Susanowo planted the hairs of beard by a mountain and they became the forest of Kii He became lord of the forest He slayed dragons in the forest He saved a woman from a dragon(snake) and she became his wife He gave the sword he used to Amaterasu and their relationship was mended Takeaways Hierarchy and familial relations as parts of nature Human dependence on the irregularity of nature The importance of social harmony Japanese interest in mirrors Magical Corn Mother From the Penobscot native Americans There was only an All-maker A young was born of the sea, wind, and sun A woman was born from a dew drop on a leaf They conceived the people of the earth People farm and they are happy so the All-make goes away3 As the amount of people increased the amount of animals decreased until the people ran out of food The first mother was sad so the father went in search of the all-maker The first mother was killed and drug by her sons After 7 days they returned to find green land and plants Her fruit (flesh) was sweet Her bones were buried and in their place grew a plant They burned the plants leaves to make their prayers effective The children remember their mother when they smoke and eat corn so she is living over and over again Takeaways Shows a symbiotic relationship between humanity and the earth Drama in the potential for damaging the earth An ideal family A self-sacrificing mothering figure Etiology of the transition form hunter-gatherers to agriculture
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