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Sample Notes: week of 1/14

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by: Ali Friedman

Sample Notes: week of 1/14

Marketplace > Georgetown University > Psychlogy > > Sample Notes week of 1 14
Ali Friedman

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Psych Notes on the reading and introductory lecture on 1/14
General Psychology
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ali Friedman on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Georgetown University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgetown University.


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Yes YES!! Thank you for these. I'm such a bad notetaker :/ will definitely be looking forward to these

-Dannie Weissnat


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Date Created: 01/31/16
For Lecture on 1/14: Introduction Chapter 1: Psychology: Evolution of a Science  Psychology: scientific study of mind and behavior  Mind: private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories, feelings, and stream of consciousness  Behavior: observable actions of human and nonhuman animals  Psychological processes= adaptive; they promote welfare of the organisms that engage in them  Structuralists: psychologists that analyze the mind by breaking it down into its basic components o Functionalists: focus on how mental abilities allow people to adapt to their environments  Plato–nativism: view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate/inborn  Aristotle–philosophical empiricism: view that all knowledge is acquired through experience  Gall developed phrenology theory, which is now defunct  Physiology: the study of biological processes  Helmholtz measured people’s reaction times st  Wilhelm Wundt opened 1 lab devoted to psychological studies; marked birth of psych as independent field of study o Focused on analyzing consciousness o Adopted structuralism: analysis of basic elements that constitute the mind (to break down consciousness) o Used introspection: subjective observation of one’s own experience  James developed functionalism: study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment o Functionalism now serves as dominant approach  Hysteria: temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually resulting from emotionally upsetting experiences o Freud developed psychoanalytic theory: emphasizes importance of unconsciousness mental processes in shaping thoughts/behavior o Therapy= psychoanalysis: brings unconscious material consciousness awareness to better understand disorders  Maslow’s humanistic psychology: approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes positive potential of human beings o Viewed people as free agents w need to develop o Movement peaked in 1960s; Freud’s ideas less influential  Behaviorism: psychologists restrict themselves to scientific study of objectively observable behavior o =Dominant from 1930s-1950s, but ignored mental processes & evolutionary history of organisms  Skinner (behaviorist) saw evidence for reinforcement: consequences of behavior determine whether it’ll be more or less likely to occur again  Wertheimer studied illusions o Gestalkt psychology: emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts  Emergence of computer cognitive psychology: scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, & reasoning  Behavioral neuroscience: approach that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system & other bodily processes  Cognitive neuroscience: attempts to understand the links b/w cognitive processes (perception, learning) & brain activity  Cultural psychology: how cultures reflect & shape the psychological processes of their members Lecture on 1/14: Introduction What is Psychology?  Psychology: study of the brain, behavior, and the mind  Experimental psych: conducting experiments to try to understand things about human behavior/the mind o Ex: EEG, MRI, cross-cultural testing, cognitive testing, lab studies, & virtual reality  Psych connects social sciences discipline (sociology, anthropology, economics) with biomedical sciences discipline (neuroscience, biology, psychiatry) o Sub-disciplines: social, personality, abnormal, developmental, cognitive, cognitive neuroscience, biopsychology 5 Principles/Assumptions of Psychological Science 1. Evolution: genes make brains; our brains= result of adaptation 2. Materialism: brains make minds a. Mind=matter (what the brain does); no point in thinking of them separately b. Descartes got it wrong; Spinoza developed idea 3. Idealism: minds make reality*** a. Your brain= constructing info about the world, NOT just taking in the world as it actually is 4. Sociality: reality is social; brains are all networked a. Your brain= inextricably linked to what OTHERS are doing 5. Empiricism: the eyes have it a. We always trust our observations over our hypotheses 3 False Dichotomies of Psychological Science 1. Nature vs. nurture: this isn’t actually how we should think about psych; there are NOT only these 2 sects; can’t disentangle these 2 influences 2. Mind vs. brain: they overlap 3. Person vs. situation: both are factors always contributing to behavior; can’t disentangle them


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