CJC 102 Week 3 Notes
CJC 102 Week 3 Notes CJC 102
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ben O'Brien on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJC 102 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Intravia in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to criminology in Criminal Justice at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Correlates, Patterns, and Trends of Crime Correlate – have a mutual relationship or concern in which one thing affects or depends upon another This does not mean the correlate causes the crime but instead implies a relationship Correlates o Ecological Day, Season, and Climate Season: Summer o Teens out of school o People spend time outdoors o Home more likely to be vacant First day of the month o Government welfare and Social Security checks arrive Murders and robberies tend to occur in December and January Temperature o Mixed evidence o Inverted U-shaped curve More crime at average temperature, less at extremes Regional differences o Urban>rural o South>West>Midwest>Northeast o Social class/Socioeconomic positions People in the lowest end of the social structure have the greatest incentive to commit crimes Instrumental crime – offenses designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal Expressive crime – offenses committed to vent rage, anger, or frustration Inner city, high-poverty areas have higher crime rates than suburban/wealthier areas o Age Criminal behavior peaks around the age of 17 or 18 and then steadily declines 13-17 year olds make up 10% of the US population but commit about 27% of the UCR index and account fro 17% of all arrests Generally 16 is the peak for property crimes, 18 for violent crimes Explanations for Age/Crime Relationship Reduction in supervision Increased social and economic demands Participation in large, more diverse, peer- oriented social world Increased desire for adult privilege Propensity to resolve problems in a criminal manner Aging out of crime may be a function of the natural history of the human life cycle Individuals begin to mature Strengthened bonds to society increase responsibility o Full time jobs o Marriage o Having kids o Race Young black males are disproportionately arrested, compared to young white males African Americans make up about 13% of the US population but account for approximately 30% of arrests for UCR indexed crime NCVS Data suggests that the proportion of offenders identified by NCVS Self-report Crime doesn’t seem to vary with race Conclusions must be approached with caution Underlying statistics omit many crimes o White collar, corporate, organized, prostitution Arrest rate disparities may be due to police bias o Poor minorities are more likely to be formally arrested than individuals who are white and affluent o Racial profiling African Americans and search vehicles o Police departments generally devote more surveillance to areas where non- whites live o Racial threat theory Immigration and Crime Immigrants o Lower rates of crime than nonimmigrants Hear that Donald Trump? o The presence of immigrants in a neighborhood helps to control crime Neighborhoods tend to have strong social institutions (e.g. churches and schools) Tend to have strong work ethics and cultural and social values Juveniles less likely to recidivate Gender and Crime Male crime rates are much higher than female crime rates o UCR reports that men are 5x more likely to be arrested for a violent crime UCR suggests men are responsible for 82% of arrests for violent crimes and 68% of property related crime Victimization surveys and self-report studies show that men are disproportionately responsible for the majority of serious violent crimes Not the same proportion as official crime statistics However, gender gap is decreasing Violent Crime o Male crimes have decreased roughly 10% o Female crimes have increased roughly 6% Property Crime o Male crimes have decreased roughly 6% o Female crimes have increased roughly 20% Why are females less criminal than males? o Trait differences Link between aggressive and antisocial behavior to male sex hormones o Gender socialization Males are taught to be more aggressive and are less likely to form attachments to others o Cognitive differences Females have been found to have superior verbal ability compared to males o Social/economic differences (feminist criminology) Traditionally, lower crime rate for women could be explained by their “second-class” economic and social position Stay at home wives didn’t have the opportunity to go out and commit crime However, women’s social roles have changed Now there are a lot of women workers, they are put out there more and have similar opportunities to men Firearm Use Firearms play a dominate role in criminal activity o Involved in 20% of robberies, 10% of assaults, and 5% of rapes o UCR – 2/3 of all murders involve a gun However, some argue that guns deter crime and save lives o Kleck and Gertz (1995) – approximately 2,500,000 people annually use guns for self-protection (DGU) o Government said holy shit this can’t be accurate and ended up confirming the Kleck and Gertz study. Other Correlates I.Q. Drug Use Weather Region Family Genetics Political status Employment Status Marital Status Income Education level Criminal Careers/Chronic Offenders Majority of offenders commit a single criminal act and upon arrest, stop o Others commit a few less serious crimes Most crime is committed by a small group of chronic or career criminals o Wolfgang et al. (1972) found that 6% of repeat offenders were chronic offenders (with over 5 arrests) who committed 52% of all crimes committed by the cohort o Used criminal records of nearly 10,000 career criminal from 1945 in Philadelphia o Those 6% committed 71% homicides, 82% robberies Moffit (1993) – Development Theory of Crime o Two distinct types of offenders Life-course persistent (LCP) offenders Start at a young age an continue throughout their lives Adolescent limited (AL) offenders Start during teenage years and stop offending o Most persistent 5% of offenders are responsible for more than 50% of known crimes committed What causes chronic offenders? o Early onset – view that repeat offenders begin their criminal careers at a very young age o Low intellectual development (neuropsychological deficits) May be genetically linked from parents o Ineffective parenting Crime Trends: Crime Trends in the United States Overall, crimes have been decreasing Mid-late 1980s through early 1990s o Increase in rates of robbery, motor vehicle theft, and homicide Early 1990s-current o Crimes have been decreasing 1991 – total crimes 14.8 million o Violent 1.9 million o Property 12.9 million 2014 – total crimes 9.5 million o Violent 1.2 million o Property 8.3 million Trends in Violent Crime o Decreasing since 1994 o Homicide rate declined between 1992 and 2000, but stable since then Homicide trends o 18-24 black males have highest rate of offending Trends in property crimes o Rates have also declined in recent years o Property crime makes up over three-quarters of all crimes committed in the US Victims and Victimization The Victim’s Role o “Wrong place at the wrong time” o However, the victim’s own behavior is important in the crime process: Active role – e.g. an assault victim initially provoked the attacker Indirect role – e.g. a man/woman adopts a lifestyle that brings him/her into high-crime areas o Victimology – the study of the victim’s role in criminal events Subdiscipline of criminology o Crime victim – one who suffers because of a crme o Victimologists – criminologists who focus their attention on crime victims Victimization’s Toll on Society o NCVS indicates the annual number of victimizations in the US is about 23 million 6.1 million victims of violent crime 16.9 million of property crime o The cost of victimization include Economic loss The annual cost of victimization is estimated to be in the hundreds of billions of dollars o Victim costs: medical care, lost earnings, counseling/treatment programs, property loss/damage o CJS costs: police protection, legal services, correction programs Victims of crime in adolescence earn on average $82,000 less than those that have not been victimized The average medical cost per case for a fatal assault is $5,000 The average medical cost per case of serious assault that required hospitalization is $25,000 The average medical cost per case of simple assault that did not require hospitalization is $1,000 Should victims receive compensation? Blaming the victim Negative reactions from friends or family may cause feelings of self-blame for what happened or that the crime was the victim’s fault May experience lack of support from friends or family Long-Term Stress Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): psychological reaction to a highly stressful event o Symptoms – depression, anxiety, flashbacks, nightmares Adolescent stress o Adolescent victims have high risk of PTSD Relationship stress o Spousal abuse has many consequences Fear Individuals may fear of being victimized again o Fear is most prominent among the elderly, poor, minorities, and those who experienced a violent crime Spillover effect – victims become fearful of other forms of crime they have not yet experienced o If you were burgled, you may fear of being assaulted, or your car being vandalized Vicarious (observational) fear – individuals may develop fear from hearing about/observing another’s victimization Antisocial Behavior Crime victims may be more likely to commit crime themselves o Individuals who are physically or sexually abused are more likely to use/abuse substances o Seek revenge o Fear re-victimization o This abuse-crime phenomenon is known as the cycle of violence An early 200s National Institute of Justice study showed that children who experience abuse or victimization were 29% more likely to commit crimes in adolescent and adult years The Nature of Victimization o Victimization patterns suggest that it is not random but rather a function of personal and ecological factors o Social ecology NCVS shows that violent crimes are more likely to take place in the following Open, public area Commercial establishments During the daytime or early evening hours o Sexual and aggravated assaults more likely to take place after hours Neighborhood characteristics Individuals living in the central city > suburbs Individuals who live in urban areas > rural dwellers o Household Most vulnerable homes to victimization Larger African American Urban West Renters o Victim Characteristics Gender Males are more likely to be victims of violent crime o Exceptions are rape and sexual assault The gender differences in the victimization rate have narrowed significantly over time Females are more likely to be victimized by someone they know or someone they live with o Roughly 2/3 Gender gap is closing Age Young people face a much higher victimization risk than older persons o Victim risk declines rapidly after age 25 Elderly victims are more likely to experience o Frauds and scams o Purse snatching/pick-pocketing o Checks stolen from the mail Race/ethnicity African Americans are more likely than whites to be victims of violent crime o 6x more likely to be the victim of a homocide However, there has been a decline in victimization risk for both groups Age/Race/Gender combined o Young, African American, males = higher victimization risk o Older, white, females = lowest victimization risk Social status Marital status Repeat victimization
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