First week Anthropology Notes
First week Anthropology Notes ANTHRO 1000 - 01
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michael Cruise on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHRO 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Professor Starkweather in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see General Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Introduction to Anthropology January 21, 2016 Anthropology: Comparative (over periods of time, different people) Definition: study of humankind in all times and places Four fields of Anthropology: cultural, linguistic, physical, archaeology Franz Boas Believed cultural and social factors directed behavior Founder of the four fields for greater understanding of influences Believed in a scientific approach Wanted to prove people were the same everywhere (specifically cognitive limits) Physical Anthropology Study of variation in human physiology Subfields: 1. Human evolution 2. Human variation 3. Forensic science 4. Primatology 5. Growth and development Archeology Study of material culture and history Prehistoric and historic: tools, poetry, domestication, settlement patterns Linguistics Comparative study of how language shapes social life Subfields: Historical linguistics Sociolinguistics (gender, dialects, construction of language) Primate communication Cultural anthropology Study of human society and culture (religion, social organization, rites and rituals) Ethnography- provides an account of a particular community, culture or society Typically focuses on groups below the national level Ethnology- analyzes and interprets the data that is gathered about a different society, sometimes through ethnography Investigates research questions and tests hypotheses Applied Anthropology The application of the information gained through the study of anthropology Examples: cultural resource management, salvaging languages, advising on social policy, forensics Culture Definition: set of learned behaviors and ideas (including beliefs, attitudes, values) that are characteristic of a particular society of other social group Characteristics of Culture: Must be shared by: Society- an organized group or groups of people that share many similarities Subculture- groups within a larger society Pluralism- multiethnic Symbolic Symbols: signs, emblems, etc that are arbitrary but represent something in a meaningful way Leaned Not all learned behavior = culture Enculturation: process by which societies culture is passed down Integrated Each aspect functions as part of an integrated whole Subsidence pattern affects: marriage, kinship rules, politics, type of home Change in 1 aspect often = change in another Constantly changing Diffusion: borrowing cultural trait from another society after contact Acculturation: extensive borrowing from a less powerful society to a more powerful one This type of borrowing may involve force ie. Colonialism Functions of Culture Hold strategies for the production and distribution of goods & services Ensures biological continuity of its members Provides social structure for reproduction and moral support Pass down knowledge and enculturate new members Facilitate social interactions and provide solutions to conflicts Maintain order among members and with outsiders Motivates members to survive and do what's necessary Be able to adapt under changing conditions Anthropology as Science (1/26) Monday, January 25, 2016 Review: How many fields of anthropology? -Biological, cultural, linguistics, archeology What makes it culture? Functions? What kinds of questions are appropriate for scientific inquiry? Questions that: Concern statements we are able to disprove Contain logical relations and have internal consistency Can be addressed with real-world, empirical data Epistemology: Definition: a way of knowing That something is true How to arrive at the truth Knowledge by acquaintance The study of knowledge and justified belief Belief: something we accept as true for ourselves Truth: in accord with fact or reality Justification: Knowledge = justified true belief Scientific Epistemology: A way of knowing using scientific inquiry Focuses on knowledge through empiricism It is limited in scope It is useful for answering some questions It does not necessarily overlap with other epistemologies, especially those applied to metaphysical (spirituality) domains Scientific inquiry: The search for scientific knowledge 5 features: Engage in scientifically oriented questions Give priority to evidence in responding to questions Formulate explanations based on evidence Connect explanations to previous scientific knowledge Communicate and justify explanations Science: A method and a discourse Method: Making propositions about the world that are falsifiable through tests Self-correcting Actively looking for data that can contradict statements Discourse: Humans communicate through language Perceptions are fallible Communities of practitioners determine what is considered valid Scientific Method Ask a question State a hypothesis Conduct an experiment Analyze the results Make a conclusion Theory: A well-substantiated explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can incorporate laws, hypotheses & facts Hypothesis: An idea or explanation that you can test through experimentation Must be falsifiable Experiment: The procedures used to detect and record facts &/or data Analyze the results: Fact: a thing that is indisputably the case Data: Individual pieces of information Measured, collected, reported & analyzed Make a conclusion based on data Confirmation vs Falsification Confirmation: given enough information, theories can be true Falsification: the scientific method only shows weather or not something is false - it cannot confirm Conclusions Summarize how your results support or contradict your original hypothesis Is Anthropology a science? Yes- biological anthropology, archaeology Mostly… Linguistics, cultural anthropology What makes it a science? Uses theory to create hypotheses Uses specific methods to collect data Analyze data to test hypotheses Use these conclusions to reformulate theory Anthropology (1/28) Thursday, January 28, 2016 Micro and Macro Evolution Taxonomy CAROLUS LINNAEUS (1707-1778) First comprehensive taxonomy of plants and animals; Systema Natura Based on: body structure, body function, sequence of growth Analogies vs Homologies Analogy: Superficially similar due to similar function; NOT due to sharing a common developmental pathway Homology: Arise in similar fashion and pass through similar stages during embryonic development; but may possess different functions Explaining change over time Catastrophism- series of catastrophes explains changes in fossil record Uniformitarianism- Earth is constantly being reshaped by natural forces How is change Transmitted? Through Units of Heredity 1 Chromosome - Lengths of DNA made up of multiple genes 2 Gene - area in a chromosome pair that determines a particular biological trait 3 Allele - Different forms of a specific gene (biochemical variants) Key Concepts Phenotype- the evident traits of an organism (what you see) Genotype- an organisms hereditary makeup heterozygous- dissimilar alleles of a specific gene Homozygous- identical alleles of a particular gene Dominant alleles- mask the others recessive allele in a heterozygote Evolution, Individuals, and Populations Populations: a group of similar individuals that can and DO interbreed and produce offspring Gene Pool: genetic variants possessed by all members of a population Microevolution: the changing of the relative proportions of alleles in a population Evolution (Micro) Defined Change over time Descent with modification Change in alleles frequencies in populations 4 Forces of Evolution 1 Natural Selection 2 Mutation 3 Gene flow 4 Genetic drift Natural Selection Natural objects may be complex but they are not improbable Man- made objects may be complex and very improbable by natural processes Biological adaptations may also be complex and improbable Natural selection is a mechanism that explains biological adaptations
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