ENGL 102- Prochaska: Week 2-OWS
ENGL 102- Prochaska: Week 2-OWS ENGL 102
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stacy Downing on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 102 at Towson University taught by Dr. Reiner Prochaska in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Writing for liberal education in Foreign Language at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
ENGL 102- Prochaska: Week 2-OWS Subject-Verb Agreement Rules 1. The phase or clause between subject and verb does not change the number of the subject 2. Indefinite pronouns as subjects a. Singular indefinite pronoun subjects take singular verbs b. Plural indefinite pronoun subjects take plural verbs c. Some indefinite pronouns may be either singular or plural: with uncountable use singular; with countable use plural 3. Compound subjects joined by and are always plural 4. With compound subjects joined by or/nor, the verb agrees with the subject that is nearest to the verb 5. Inverted subjects must agree with the verb 6. Collective nouns may be singular or plural, depending on the meaning 7. Titles of single entities are always singular 8. Plural form subjects a. Plural form subjects meaning take a singular verb b. Plural form subjects with singular or plural meaning depend on the meaning c. Plural from subjects with a plural meaning take a plural verb 9. Subjects and subjective complement of different number, verb always agree with subject 10.With one of those ____________ who, use a plural verb 11.With the only one of those ____________ who, use singular verb 12.With the number of __________, use a singular verb 13.With a number of ___________, use a plural verb 14.With Every _____________ and many a _____________, use a singular verb. Apostrophe Rules 1. Apostrophe is used… a. To show ownership b. To show joint ownership with nouns c. To show individual ownership with nouns d. To show ownership with indefinite pronouns 2. Don’t use an apostrophe with its to mean it is or it has 3. To form the plural of letter, numbers, signs, or words referred to as words (and’s) Avoiding Fragment Rules 1. A complete sentence needs a subject-predicate unit AND a complete thought 2. A simple sentence is actually the SAME thing as an independent clause. 3. Dependent clauses/phrases called fragments because they are missing one or more parts needed to make a sentence one piece to a complete sentence Common Splices and Fused Sentences Rules 1. Sometimes two independent clauses can be joined to form another kind of sentence: the compound sentence 2. Two major errors can occur when constructing compound sentences a. Trying to separate the two independent clauses in a compound with a comma i. A common is not a strong enough punctuation mark to separate the two independent clauses by itself; thus, using causes the clauses to be spliced together b. No punctuation between two independent clauses causes them to fuse into an INCORRECT compound sentence 3. The sentence can be repaired in three ways: a. By adding an appropriate coordinating conjunction b. By changing the comma to a semicolon c. By changing the punctuation and adding appropriate conjunctive adverbs 4. Another way to repair a comma splice or fused sentence is to make each independent clause into a simple sentence. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement Rules 1. A pronoun is a word used to stand for a noun; a word can refer to an earlier noun or pronoun in the sentence 2. An antecedent is a word for which a pronoun stands. The pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number 3. Rules: a. A phrase/clause between the subject and verb doesn’t change the number of antecedents b. Indefinite pronouns as antecedents i. Singular indefinite pronoun antecedents take singular pronoun referent ii. Plural indefinite pronoun antecedents require plural referents iii. Some that are modified by a propositional phrase may be singular or plural iv. When the object of the preposition is uncountable use singular referent pronoun v. When object of preposition is countable use a plural referent pronoun c. Compound subjects joined by and always take a plural referent d. With compound subjects joined by or/nor, the referent pronoun agrees with the antecedent closer to the pronoun e. Collective nouns (group, jury,etc) may be singular or plural depending on the meaning f. Titles of single entitles take a singular referent g. Plural subjects with singular meaning take a singular referent h. Every or many a before a noun or a series of nouns require singular referent i. The number of is singular j. A number of is plural
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