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Introduction to Psychology Notes Weeks 1 and 2 (1/21 - 1/28)

by: Sadie Threlkel

Introduction to Psychology Notes Weeks 1 and 2 (1/21 - 1/28) PSY 100-006

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Psychlogy > PSY 100-006 > Introduction to Psychology Notes Weeks 1 and 2 1 21 1 28
Sadie Threlkel
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About this Document

The notes taken from the first two weeks of the semester during lecture.
Introductory Psychology
Maeve Bronwyn O'Donnell
Class Notes
Psychology, PSY100




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sadie Threlkel on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100-006 at Colorado State University taught by Maeve Bronwyn O'Donnell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 01/31/16
Psychology Notes 1/21 – 1/28 1/21 Logistics, History and Current Perspectives ­Two major debates in early ‘psychology” 1. Are the mind (soul) and body separate or one? 2. Are we the way we are because of nature or nurture? (genetics vs. environment) Ancient Greek Philosophers ­Socrates and Plato o “Dualism” – mind (soul) and body are separate o “Nativism” – knowledge from birth/previous lives ­Aristotle  o “Monism” –mind (soul) and body are the same thing o “Empiricism” – knowledge comes from experience  Dualism ­Rene Descartes  o Dualism – material body/ immaterial mind (soul) Materialism (a branch of Monism) ­Thomas Hobbes o Materialism – mind, body and consciousness all come from physical matter Empiricism ­John Locke o All human knowledge based on sensory experience (nurture) o Tabula Rosa – ‘blank slate’ perspective  Nativism ­Charles Darwin  o Nativism – some knowledge is innate (born with it), (nature) Soul Weighing?  ­Early 1900s, MacDougall  o Measured dying people before and after death  o People were all different ages, sizes, and had different causes of death (not  accurate at all) o Determined a soul weighs ½ oz. to 1 ¼ oz.   o Also looked at dogs the same way – the dogs did not have a significant weight  change and it was determined they had no soul  Nativism vs. Empiricism  ­Nativists: Plato and Darwin ­Empiricists: Hobbes and Locke  ­ interplay between both ideologies even today  Formation of Psychology as its Own Discipline  Wilhelm Wundt (1832 – 1920 AD)   ­wrote first psychology textbook ­opened the first psychology lab in 1879 ­ wanted to know the speed of mental processes Wundt’s Reaction Time Experiments  ­Experiment #1: patient holds telegraph key and drops it when a light comes on  o Person is timed dropping the key o Found that it takes 0.2 second on average to drop the key  ­Experiments #2: patient is required to make a choice – drop key in left hand if light is  green, drop key in right hand if light is red o Experiment times decision making o Took 0.29 seconds on average for a person to drop a key o Not very accurate – some people may have been colorblind ­Wundt subtracted Experiment #1 from Experiment #2 and determined it takes a person  0.09 seconds to process color and make a choice  Structuralism  ­Edward Titchner (1867 – 1927) o “Structuralism” – mental processes can be broken down into base components  o Introspection  ­Self­reflection – “looking inward” ­Reported elements of consciousness experiences  ­Misses things that happen that we don’t notice ­Experiences can be super varied  Functionalism ­William James (1842 – 1910) o Functionalism – why we have certain thoughts, feelings and behaviors ­Mary Whiton Calkins (1863 – 1930) o First female PhD student in Psychology  ­caused men to drop out  ­completed PhD requirements (had the highest test scores in class) but  denied degree by Harvard o She went on to: ­become distinguished memory researcher ­first female American Psychology Association President in 1905 Psychology Today Perspectives: ­Neuroscience – focuses on brain an how body and brain enable emotions/memories ­Evolutionary – focuses on natural selection and how evolution influences behavior ­Behavioral Genetics – focuses on how genes influence psychological traits such as  intelligence and personality ­Psychodynamic – focuses on unconsciousness (Freud) ­Behavioral – Watson and Skinner, focuses on learning  ­Cognitive – focuses on mental processes ­Social­cultural – focuses on environment (situations and culture) 1/26 Biopsychosocial Approach of Psychology Biological Influences  Behavior/Mental Processes Psychological Influences     Social­Cultural Influences ↑ Ex. ­biological – inherited  ­psychological – projected thoughts ­social­cultural – awkward situations  Four Main Career Categories for Psychology: ­Basic Research – smallest mechanisms  ­Applied Research – specific purposes ­Counseling/Clinical – better peoples’ lives ­Psychiatric – MD’s prescribing meds  Biases:  Intuition – ‘gut’ feeling ­Usually not enough, leads people astray  ­Ex: bumps on head = personality traits, cocaine toothache drops  Hindsight Bias – I­knew­it­all­along phenomenon  ­Tendency to believe that we could have accurately predicted that outcome after learning  what happens ­Ex: sports plays, pets dying, ending of relationship Anagrams  ­Ex: ORGF = FROG ­Tests like this can lead to overconfidence: people guessed they would be able to solve  three anagrams in 10 seconds, but it took over three minutes on average to  complete them all  ­Think we know more than we do OR think we’re better at tasks than we actually are  Perceiving Order in Random Events ­Likely to perceive random events as patterns/streaks ­Ex: hot streaks in gambling, seeing the number ‘3’ everywhere you go, grilled cheese  religious figure portraits ­In order to prevent this from happening, need to find information through research that  doesn’t fit a pattern  Confirmation Bias ­The tendency to search for information that confirms our beliefs  ­Tend to ignore conflicting evidence  ­To be scientific, must try to find disconfirming evidence  Scientific Attitude and Thinking: 1. Curiosity 2. Skepticism – what do you mean? How do you know? 3. Humility 4. Critical Thinking – what is the person’s agenda? Is the conclusion based on science?  What alternate Explanations are possible? Scientific Method ­Systematic investigation of a research question  ­Psychology is a science: uses scientific methodology to test predictions  The Research Process: Step 1 – develop a research question  o Seeks answer to a question that doesn’t already have an answer o Ex. Why are fish in River A larger than fish in River B? Step 2 – develop a theory o An explanation that organizes observations and predicts behaviors/events o Ex. Fish who eat beetles grow larger  than fish who don’t Step 3 – develop a hypothesis o A testable prediction about a specific set of variables o Constructs in hypothesis must be measurable! Must have operational definitions  so it can be replicated  o Ex. Fish who eat >10 beetles a day will be larger than fish who eat < 10 beetles  per day o Operational definitions: ­statement of procedures and concepts used to define variables in a study (define  limits) ­Ex. “drinks excessively” … drinking > 5 nights per week Step 4 – design research  o How do we test the hypothesis? o How do we examine research data so that it makes sense? o Ex. Feed one group of fish 10 beetles per day, second group none, then weigh fish Step 5 – collect data Step 6 – evaluate data Step 7 – interpret data with respect to the theory  Step 8 – loop! Replicate experiment (may spur new research questions) 1/28 Observe and Describe Behavior  ­Case study ­Naturalistic observation ­Survey Predict Behavior  ­Correlation and experimental research Case Studies ­One individual examined in­depth  ­Ex. Phineas Gage (rod through brain), Patient HM (epilepsy – removed hippocampus –  no memory) Naturalistic Observation  ­Watching/recording behavior in a natural environment  ­Ex. Jane Goodall, children with learning disabilities observed in class Surveys ­Self­report of behaviors or opinions  ­Wording effects: o January 2003 U.S. national survey  ­ Two similar questions on two different surveys about support for the  war in the Middle East, one involved casualties of soldiers ­ 68% said yes on question 1, 25% no ­ 43% said yes on question 2, 48% no ­ Wording of questions can alter results! Sampling Terms ­Population – every single person you’re interested in studying or generalizing results to  (Ex. CSU students) ­Sample – the people that actually participated in study (who you hope is representative  of your population) ­Representative Sample – sample accurately reflects proportions seen in population, Ex.  50% male, 50% female ­Random Sampling – every person in desired population has an equal chance of being  selected (best used in representative sampling) o Why care about sampling? ­to whom do you want to generalize the results ­importance of representative sample (avoid sampling bias) ­before accepting the credibility of research, think about sample! Correlation Research ­Correlation – the relationship between two variables ­Correlation Coefficient – how closely the two are related, change in one variable  predicts change in another variable  ­Positive Correlation – direct relationship  o Ex. Height and weight, paid hourly, less attractive = less dates ­Negative Correlation – inverse relationship o Ex. Hours of exercising increases = weight decreases, higher education level =  fewer children ­No Correlation – no relationship o Ex. Intelligence and happiness  Measuring the Strengths of a Correlational Relationship ­ r = +0.47  ­ r – correlational coefficient ­ + ­ indicates direction of relationship (+ or ­) ­ 0.47 – strength (0.00 to 1.00) o Ex. Ice cream sales go up and crime rates go up (related how???) ­This equals a third variable problem – Summer and extended daylight  hours/warmth o Correlation ≠ Causation!!! 


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