Introduction to Psychology Notes Weeks 1 and 2 (1/21 - 1/28)
Introduction to Psychology Notes Weeks 1 and 2 (1/21 - 1/28) PSY 100-006
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sadie Threlkel on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100-006 at Colorado State University taught by Maeve Bronwyn O'Donnell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Psychology Notes 1/21 – 1/28 1/21 Logistics, History and Current Perspectives Two major debates in early ‘psychology” 1. Are the mind (soul) and body separate or one? 2. Are we the way we are because of nature or nurture? (genetics vs. environment) Ancient Greek Philosophers Socrates and Plato o “Dualism” – mind (soul) and body are separate o “Nativism” – knowledge from birth/previous lives Aristotle o “Monism” –mind (soul) and body are the same thing o “Empiricism” – knowledge comes from experience Dualism Rene Descartes o Dualism – material body/ immaterial mind (soul) Materialism (a branch of Monism) Thomas Hobbes o Materialism – mind, body and consciousness all come from physical matter Empiricism John Locke o All human knowledge based on sensory experience (nurture) o Tabula Rosa – ‘blank slate’ perspective Nativism Charles Darwin o Nativism – some knowledge is innate (born with it), (nature) Soul Weighing? Early 1900s, MacDougall o Measured dying people before and after death o People were all different ages, sizes, and had different causes of death (not accurate at all) o Determined a soul weighs ½ oz. to 1 ¼ oz. o Also looked at dogs the same way – the dogs did not have a significant weight change and it was determined they had no soul Nativism vs. Empiricism Nativists: Plato and Darwin Empiricists: Hobbes and Locke interplay between both ideologies even today Formation of Psychology as its Own Discipline Wilhelm Wundt (1832 – 1920 AD) wrote first psychology textbook opened the first psychology lab in 1879 wanted to know the speed of mental processes Wundt’s Reaction Time Experiments Experiment #1: patient holds telegraph key and drops it when a light comes on o Person is timed dropping the key o Found that it takes 0.2 second on average to drop the key Experiments #2: patient is required to make a choice – drop key in left hand if light is green, drop key in right hand if light is red o Experiment times decision making o Took 0.29 seconds on average for a person to drop a key o Not very accurate – some people may have been colorblind Wundt subtracted Experiment #1 from Experiment #2 and determined it takes a person 0.09 seconds to process color and make a choice Structuralism Edward Titchner (1867 – 1927) o “Structuralism” – mental processes can be broken down into base components o Introspection Selfreflection – “looking inward” Reported elements of consciousness experiences Misses things that happen that we don’t notice Experiences can be super varied Functionalism William James (1842 – 1910) o Functionalism – why we have certain thoughts, feelings and behaviors Mary Whiton Calkins (1863 – 1930) o First female PhD student in Psychology caused men to drop out completed PhD requirements (had the highest test scores in class) but denied degree by Harvard o She went on to: become distinguished memory researcher first female American Psychology Association President in 1905 Psychology Today Perspectives: Neuroscience – focuses on brain an how body and brain enable emotions/memories Evolutionary – focuses on natural selection and how evolution influences behavior Behavioral Genetics – focuses on how genes influence psychological traits such as intelligence and personality Psychodynamic – focuses on unconsciousness (Freud) Behavioral – Watson and Skinner, focuses on learning Cognitive – focuses on mental processes Socialcultural – focuses on environment (situations and culture) 1/26 Biopsychosocial Approach of Psychology Biological Influences Behavior/Mental Processes Psychological Influences SocialCultural Influences ↑ Ex. biological – inherited psychological – projected thoughts socialcultural – awkward situations Four Main Career Categories for Psychology: Basic Research – smallest mechanisms Applied Research – specific purposes Counseling/Clinical – better peoples’ lives Psychiatric – MD’s prescribing meds Biases: Intuition – ‘gut’ feeling Usually not enough, leads people astray Ex: bumps on head = personality traits, cocaine toothache drops Hindsight Bias – Iknewitallalong phenomenon Tendency to believe that we could have accurately predicted that outcome after learning what happens Ex: sports plays, pets dying, ending of relationship Anagrams Ex: ORGF = FROG Tests like this can lead to overconfidence: people guessed they would be able to solve three anagrams in 10 seconds, but it took over three minutes on average to complete them all Think we know more than we do OR think we’re better at tasks than we actually are Perceiving Order in Random Events Likely to perceive random events as patterns/streaks Ex: hot streaks in gambling, seeing the number ‘3’ everywhere you go, grilled cheese religious figure portraits In order to prevent this from happening, need to find information through research that doesn’t fit a pattern Confirmation Bias The tendency to search for information that confirms our beliefs Tend to ignore conflicting evidence To be scientific, must try to find disconfirming evidence Scientific Attitude and Thinking: 1. Curiosity 2. Skepticism – what do you mean? How do you know? 3. Humility 4. Critical Thinking – what is the person’s agenda? Is the conclusion based on science? What alternate Explanations are possible? Scientific Method Systematic investigation of a research question Psychology is a science: uses scientific methodology to test predictions The Research Process: Step 1 – develop a research question o Seeks answer to a question that doesn’t already have an answer o Ex. Why are fish in River A larger than fish in River B? Step 2 – develop a theory o An explanation that organizes observations and predicts behaviors/events o Ex. Fish who eat beetles grow larger than fish who don’t Step 3 – develop a hypothesis o A testable prediction about a specific set of variables o Constructs in hypothesis must be measurable! Must have operational definitions so it can be replicated o Ex. Fish who eat >10 beetles a day will be larger than fish who eat < 10 beetles per day o Operational definitions: statement of procedures and concepts used to define variables in a study (define limits) Ex. “drinks excessively” … drinking > 5 nights per week Step 4 – design research o How do we test the hypothesis? o How do we examine research data so that it makes sense? o Ex. Feed one group of fish 10 beetles per day, second group none, then weigh fish Step 5 – collect data Step 6 – evaluate data Step 7 – interpret data with respect to the theory Step 8 – loop! Replicate experiment (may spur new research questions) 1/28 Observe and Describe Behavior Case study Naturalistic observation Survey Predict Behavior Correlation and experimental research Case Studies One individual examined indepth Ex. Phineas Gage (rod through brain), Patient HM (epilepsy – removed hippocampus – no memory) Naturalistic Observation Watching/recording behavior in a natural environment Ex. Jane Goodall, children with learning disabilities observed in class Surveys Selfreport of behaviors or opinions Wording effects: o January 2003 U.S. national survey Two similar questions on two different surveys about support for the war in the Middle East, one involved casualties of soldiers 68% said yes on question 1, 25% no 43% said yes on question 2, 48% no Wording of questions can alter results! Sampling Terms Population – every single person you’re interested in studying or generalizing results to (Ex. CSU students) Sample – the people that actually participated in study (who you hope is representative of your population) Representative Sample – sample accurately reflects proportions seen in population, Ex. 50% male, 50% female Random Sampling – every person in desired population has an equal chance of being selected (best used in representative sampling) o Why care about sampling? to whom do you want to generalize the results importance of representative sample (avoid sampling bias) before accepting the credibility of research, think about sample! Correlation Research Correlation – the relationship between two variables Correlation Coefficient – how closely the two are related, change in one variable predicts change in another variable Positive Correlation – direct relationship o Ex. Height and weight, paid hourly, less attractive = less dates Negative Correlation – inverse relationship o Ex. Hours of exercising increases = weight decreases, higher education level = fewer children No Correlation – no relationship o Ex. Intelligence and happiness Measuring the Strengths of a Correlational Relationship r = +0.47 r – correlational coefficient + indicates direction of relationship (+ or ) 0.47 – strength (0.00 to 1.00) o Ex. Ice cream sales go up and crime rates go up (related how???) This equals a third variable problem – Summer and extended daylight hours/warmth o Correlation ≠ Causation!!!
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