Notes for Exam 1 and 2
Notes for Exam 1 and 2 posc 1010
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phillip Lyew-Daniels on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to posc 1010 at Clemson University taught by Jeffrey Allen Fine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see American National government in Political Science at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
8/25/15 AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM: “REPRESENTATIVE” DEMOCRACY We are a representative democracy but what it means is not universal Definitions of politics o Who gets what, when, and how Process of resolving conflict o All based on what those particular conflicts look like o Government as mechanism Direct vs. Representative Democracy Direct Democracy (Ancient Greece) o All eligible citizens can participate directly o Individuals represent their own interests Representative Democracy (What we have) o All eligible voters can choose individuals to represent them o Represent the interests of constituents American System Representative Democracy o We have electors (people we elect) to represent us and speak on our behalf of the people who will then go and make those decisions o The founders felt as though we are not the best people to make those decisions for yourself, so we will have the people who will be better to make the decisions for us o Initiatives/Referendums Citizens have the opportunity to change things or make things happen o Recall The people can remove someone that was elected in their state Some states not all What is representation? Who represents? o Lawyers o Agents (sports, actors, writers) o Interpreters o Parent/Guardian What does it mean to “represent”? o Look out for best interest o Translate o Do what you say Delegates v Trustees o If you do what they say you are a Delegate o If you look out for the best interest you are a Trustee Who Should Elected Officials Represent? All citizens (the “best interest” of the American people) All constituents o Everyone who lives in your state or district that cannot vote Fellows Minors illegals All voting eligible citizens All voters All individuals who voted for that official Are “the people” Represented? Potential Vote – what percentage of the votes that you could have received, did you receive % vote * % turnout Challenges for Representation 1. Changing preferences over time a. Citizenship changes b. Ideological or partisan shifts c. Demographic changes 2. Crosscutting preferences a. They are not always going to agree with you. Different preferences on different issues make the job to represent them a little harder b. Difficult to represent everyone on every issue 3. Silent majority, vocal minority a. Most people do not contact their member of congress or go to town hall meetings, etc b. Instead you get a very vocal minority 8/27/15 POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY LEADING TO THE U.S. CONSTITUTION Why Do We Need Government? To protect: o Liberty o Equality o Security o Property Aristotle o “Man is by nature a political animal” PreConstitution Political Theory Social Contract Theorists: o Thomas Hobbes: The Leviathan (1651) o John Locke: 2 Treatise on Gov’t ( 1681) o JeanJacques Rousseau: Social Contract (1763) Fundamental ideals: o Natural Rights Rights that predate government, come from God o Constitutionalism We have a social contract, now we will form an agreement Social Contract Theory Definition o “Agreement among the members of an organized society or between the governed and the government defining and limiting the rights and duties of each.” State of Nature prior to any government Gov’t established by the people to achieve some goal Hobbes’ Leviathan (1651) State of Nature: War o Life is “nasty, brutish, and short” o Civil war the ultimate terror The fear of war and death Why a social contract? o Security (and elimination of fear) Create “Leviathan” A “leviathan” is a monarch, a tyrant, and all powerful dictator, although made up on the people. The people gave all their autonomy and liberty to the leviathan in order to make sure it keeps them safe Locke: Second Treatise on Gov’t (1681) State of Nature: liberty and equality o Property and wealth (from labor) If someone attempts to take or steal your property, it is ok to kill or defend your property that you have acquired legitimately o Need security from others Why a social contract? o Protect liberty and property Can’t enjoy if subjected to “invasion of others” Rousseau: Social Contract (1763) State of Nature: Men are unequal and selfinterested Why a social contract? o Society where everyone chooses the laws that govern them o Citizenship = equality under the law The system treats us equally and fair Bad government – Aggregate of individual selfinterest Good government – Aimed at the “public good” Defining “Citizens” Athenian (Ancient Greek) notion of citizen o Participant in lawmaking (democratic citizen) Lockean notion of citizen o Bearer of rights (free individual) American notion of citizen?? o State of nature? Broadly agreed with constitutionalism AOC first Then Constitution o Why a social contract? 9/1/15 The Founding of the American Democratic System: Creation of the U.S. Constitution Revolution Inspired by…… Concern for liberty, property o Threatened by British policies Desire for popular sovereignty o The ability to govern is coming from the people, rather than from a group or entity in another place (Britain for example) 1774 First Continental Congress o Came up with a list of grievances to send to Britain Articles of Confederation Created 1777, ratified 1781 o First Constitution Features & Flaws: o No executive branch o No judicial branch o Unicameral legislature o Equal representation (one vote per state) o 9/13 requirement for legislation o Unanimity for amendments or abolition Other Flaw: o Congress – No power to tax or regulate commerce (means they cannot raise an army either) I. Constitutional Convention (1787) Inspired by failures of AOC Members: o 73 delegates from 12 states (no Rhode Island) o Delegates Largely privileged, educated Representative? Questions about whether the people sent were really representative of the colonies at large. Some agree and disagree II. Republicanism Gov’t based on popular consent, but: o Natural elite rules o Limit on influence of masses A. Objectives? o Limit gov’t power o Insulate gov’t against majority opinion o Protect property B. How to achieve objectives? o Diffused power, spread power throughout a lot of people. Spread power across many different places o Reps. Exercising independent judgment & Electoral safeguards o Suffrage restricted to white male landowners, giving themselves more power in the system III. Consensus Replace Articles Belief in republican form of gov’t Need stronger national gov’t Dangers of factions IV. Conflict and compromise Representation o Virginia Plan (Madison) Strong central gov’t Controlled by wealthiest and largest states Popularly elected, bicameral national legislature Veto state laws Appoint executive and judiciary Seats in both houses based on population Single executive Heavily stacked in favor of Virginia o New Jersey Plan (Paterson) Modeled after Articles of Confederation Favored small states States remain sovereign over central gov’t Unicameral legislature One rep. per state Plural executive (think of like Board of Trustees to make decisions) o Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise (Sherman) Compromise between VA and NJ plans Bicameral legislature (House and Senate) Lower house – based on population (favors large states) o Direct population elections Upper house – equal for each state (favors small states) o Elected by state legislatures Separate executive (One President but not selected by Congress) Slavery o Slavery & Political Power of South 3/5 Compromise: Counting slaves for population and taxation Can’t end slave trade until 1808 (ending slave importation) Required nonslave states to return runaways *** Paradox of American “democracy” Selection of the President o Electoral College More protection against the will of masses “Representation” by more sophisticated elites Balances small and large state power Large states most Electoral Votes Small states overrepresented in the E.C. John Roche’s Argument Founding Fathers: o Political experience (served in their own state legislatures) o Masters of compromise o Motivated to improve on the AOC o Wanted document that was acceptable to their constituents o Eager to return to their families, businesses and political careers *** Conflicts with Beard’s view Constitution as a Living Document Two ways to change: o By amendment (2/3 vote) Very difficult o By interpretation (Supreme Court) Supreme Court has power to interpret what the Constitution means. Only court that can do that 9/3/15 FEDERALISM Federalism Diffused power (The separation of powers across levels) “Checks and Balances” o Within levels of government (sep. of powers) o Across levels of government (federalism) Fed., Judic., Exec., Leg. Federalist 51: “double security” against majority tyranny Forms of Government Unitary Government o Hierarchical structure o Authority lies with national government Confederation o Members join together to achieve common goal o Members remain sovereign Federalism o Shared power/ “dual sovereignty” Validity of Federalism Tension between equality and liberty o Centralized system More uniform, equitable, and accountable o Decentralized system More democratic and flexible Federalism o Combination of two (depends on issue) Constitutional Separation of Powers Specific powers are given to the federal government o Can make mandates – if issued has to be done Funded Mandate – Fed gives states the money to comply with their mandate Unfunded Mandate – States have to come up with the money on their own, but must follow the Fed’s mandate o Enumerated Powers – powers specifically given to one actor in the federal system via the Constitution th Implied Powers – not specifically written in the Constitution 10 Amendment o Powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved to the states Reserved Powers House Rule – Constitution provision o Any bill introduced into Congress must have a section that says which part of the Constitution says they can do that *** Congress circumventing the 10 Amendment Ways Federal Power Has Been Expanded Necessary and Proper Clause (“Elastic Clause”) o Ex. Creating national bank Supremacy Clause: national laws superior to state laws o Ex. McCulloch v Maryland (1819) Creating the national bank Commerce Clause: interstate commerce o Ex. Katzenback v McClung (1964) Resturant in Alabama that didn’t want African Americans to eat there, its interstate commerce Spending Clause: power of the purse o Grants, grantsinaid Block Grants – Money for transportation do what you want with it Categorical Grants – Hers money for transportation, you can only spend it on bridges Grantsinaid – the drinking age. Make the drinking age 21 and we will give you money for transportation o Ex. South Dakota v. Dole (1987) South Dakota sues Dole (secretary of transportation) saying you can’t take our money if we do not comply. Power to tax o Ex. Affordable Care Act cases (2012) Strength of Federalism Proximity to Citizens o Local gov’t knows needs of people Local Control o Citizens trust local government more Innovation o States are ‘laboratories of democracy” Weaknesses of Federalism Allows local minorities to block the will of national majorities Power to spread out, difficult to determine who is in charge Justice varies from state to state (policies) Effects of Federalism: What level of government should policy decisions? Education o Curriculum? Standardized testing? Death Penalty Gun Control Laws (waiting periods, background checks, etc.) Welfare Civil Rights issues Voting laws Marriage Alcohol/Tobacco/Drugs o Drinking age? Smoking bans? Drug laws? 9/8/15 CIVIL LIBERTIES Overview Definition: Personal Freedoms – protected for all individuals o Prevent gov’t infringement Sources: o Bill of Rights Intentionally vague. It is the courts job to interpret what it means Incorporation (Selective Incorporation or Incorporation Doctrine) When rights have been protected now by the States also, in addition to them being protected federally o Still some limits Freedom of Religion Establishment & Free Exercise Clause o “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof” Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) – state funding for nonpublic schools o “Lemon Test” Avoid “excessive entanglement” Cannot advance or inhibit religion Vouchers? o Some States have implemented these to reimburse the money some people pay in taxes, if they send their kids to private school and still have to pay the public school tax 10 Commandments? School Prayer? o Not ok Pledge? Cong. Prayer? o “One Nation under God” has made the Pledge controversial Freedom of Speech Speech and expression Symbolic Speech o Flag burning Restrictions: o Clear and Present Danger rule “Fire” o Fighting words Freedom of Speech & Press Obscenity o “I know it when I see it” SCOTUS violates “community” standards Hate speech? o Abusive speech attacking groups Press o Prior restraint – confining printed statements before they are actually printed Restraining action before it occurs (censorship) o Libel (related to press) and slander (related to speech) laws Actual malice Due Process Defendant rights and limits on the state No illegal search and seizure (4 ) Fair and public trial (6 ) th Informed of crime, face accusers (6 ) Adequate counsel (6 )h Selfincrimination (5 ) o Miranda rights (1966) o No coerced confessions “Double Jeopardy” (5 )th o Trying to prevent the government from getting multiple bites of the same apple Other Rights nd 2 Amendment o What does this protect? o DC v Heller (2008) Individuals, for private home use Later incorporated Right to Privacy o Not mentioned in the Constitution o Sup. Ct. right is implied Roe v Wade (1973) o Information Age? What does privacy even mean? Privacy now is different from what it was then Right to Marry 9/10/15 CIVIL RIGHTS Quiz: 1. Senate 2. Lynch 3. 2 4. 10 5. VicePresident Civil Rights Some groups that have lobbied for civil rights o Racial minorities o Women o LGBTQ Interest groups, Social Movements, and Media attention are critical Racial Discrimination (18651870) “Civil War Amendments” o 13 (1865) th Abolishes slavery o 14 (1868) Equal protection clause and the due process clause o 15 (1870) Suffrage for all, cannot be denied because of race or prior servitude Jim Crow Laws (18761965) Literacy and Poll taxes put in place to keep people from voting (think about the quiz we took at the beginning of class) Racial Discrimination (18961955) Plessy v Ferguson (1896) o Establishes the “Separate but Equal Doctrine” As long as the two things are equal it is ok Truman Executive Order (1948) o Truman uses an Executive Order to integrate the military Brown v Board (1954) o Separate is inherently equal o Supreme Court says integration should happen with “All Deliberate Speed” Rosa Parks and Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) o The boycott lasts for over a year and eventually the rules are changed because the economics for the bus company are screwed o Garners large coverage CORE, SNCC, SCLC NAACP o Involved with the efforts for the civil rights movement Eisenhower & Little Rock (1957) Testing Brown decision Gov. Faubas & AR National Guard o Brings in Arkansas National Guard to block 9 black students from entering a white school President Eisenhower responds by telling the US Army to escort those students to school for the entire school year o Gov. Faubas says ok, I’ll just close all the schools Freedom Riders (1961) Testing integration in interstate transportation o CORE & SNCC o The board a bus in the mid atlantic and ride all the way through the deep south Wallace and University of Alabama (June 11, 1963) Federalizing AL National Guard o Brings in Guard to prevent two students from enrolling in the Univ. of Alabama Kennedy Speech o Makes a speech where he tries to advance this past just words, but challenges Congress to help Civil Rights Act of 1964 Many of Kennedy’s ideas are not passed until after his death. President Johnson who came after him was able to get these done After this the parties shift, and the South becomes more for the Republican Party Voting Rights Act of 1965 Johnson signs this to make those Jim Crow voting barriers illegal Poll tax is passed around this time too Race Discrimination (1966Present) De Facto vs. De Jure Segregation o De Jure – Segregation by law o De Facto – Segregation that occurs in practice Affirmative Action o Hard AA – Certain number of seats reserved for minorities o Soft AA – lets equal out the playing field Reparations movement o Some people say that the government should give decedents of slaves monetary reparations Discrimination: Gender 19 Amendment (1919) o Suffrage for women Equal Rights Amendment (1972) o Passed by Congress but not actually ratified Pay inequality Discrimination: Sexual Orientation Has gone from only a few states in 2012 – now all states 2015 9/17/15 PUBLIC OPINION Political Socialization Definition: Process through which we acquire political orientations – a process of political learning o Direct and Indirect Would be direct if you are actually seeking out that information. Would be indirect if it is through other people like the media o “Socializing agents” The sources of our political attitudes Single best source is FAMILY Another strong predictor is your peers Another is the region you are in Another is the media Another is if you are related/know Genes? Some say our political socialization is etched into our genes American Ideals Liberalism o Broken down into Social liberalism and economic liberalism (capitalism) Equality o Equality of opportunity o Equality of results Democracy Patriotism o Our sense of patriotism comes from a very young age where we are taught the National Anthem and Pledge of Allegiance very early Measuring Public Opinion Polling: o Market research (Research done in the field of marketing) o Literary Digest (It was a magazine) Election forecasting (19161936) o 1936 Election Literary Digest vs. Gallup Gallup says LD is going to be wrong with their prediction, and would get it back while having a lot less responses o LD had 10 M while Gallup had 1500 o Gallup gets a more “Representative Sample” Are Polls Always Right? Pitfalls o Sample not representative Latedeciders People who in mid October do not know who they are going to vote for Cellphones? Not everyone has a phone so the polls may not take into account those people which could skew data Weighting error o Ex: 1948 Election, 2012 o Scientific Representative Sample The Sample must be Representative o Unscientific Internet polling? Not everyone has the internet so it doesn’t take into account everyone Callin and textin polling Push polls The worst example of polling The objective of a push poll is to spread a rumor Why is public opinion important? Politicians/candidates identify concerns of public o Drawbacks: Encourages shortterm fix Lead vs. Follow? Might be an incentive to find out what people like or think, then just mold your ideas by that. Rather than leading and doing what might be best Low knowledge Easily manipulated Public What do you think? o The public will more than likely look at the trends of everyone else to develop their own view/opinion/what decision to make Media “Horserace” coverage o The media will broadcast who’s currently winning at the moment rather than what the candidate is actually saying Drawbacks (both public and media): “Bandwagon effect” Easily manipulated Low knowledge Testing Political Knowledge Name the five 1st Amendment rights o Speech, Press, Petition, Religion, Assembly 1 in 1000 know these Name the Simpsons: o Homer, Marge, Lisa, Bart, Maggie, Santa’s Little Helper, and Snowball 1 in 5 know these Name all 3 original American Idol judges: o Randy Jackson, Paulla, Simon 1 in 4 know these Name on person who is a supreme court judge: o Sonya S., Clarence Thomas, Anthony Kennedy 66% cannot name one Under 6% cannot name one Kardashian Majority in Senate? o Republican – 62% Majority in House? o Republican – 61% Name of vice president? o Joe Biden – 69% Who decides whether laws are constitutional? o SCOTUS – 54% Speaker of House? o John Boehner – 22% Which party is more conservative? o Republican – 52% Senate majority leader? o Mitch McConnell – 34% Length of a Senate term? o 6 years – 26% Name of the chief justices of the Supreme Court? o John Roberts – 6% All 9 correct 7 in 100,000 Others? Elites vs. Masses Elites o Deeply interested and involved o High levels of political knowledge o Response stability (If you get called up and asked about an issue i.e. abortion, legal weed – an elite would give a response, and if asked the same question 3 months later, the answer would be similar) o Wellstructured ideologies Joe Six Pack o Pay VERY little attention to politics o Low levels of political knowledge o Unstable opinions (Opposite of elites, these people may even give different answers within the same survey) o Inconsistent opinions Why is Joe SixPack uninformed? Education & political knowledge o The more education you have the more political knowledge you will have So one thing is Joe SixPack doesn’t have a high level of education High information costs o In order to be informed on all of the political stuff it takes time and effort to read and follow the news consistently Joe SixPack may not have expendable time to do this Rational ignorance o Who cares? Does it matter? How is someone’s life actually different based on if they can name the vicepresident or not Overcoming Low Knowledge? Singleissue voters o May not care about all the issues but you are informed on one specific issue (gun rights, LGBTQ, etc) Cues Some type of information shortcut o Elite Things like endorsements. For example, you may agree with Oprah so you vote for the person she endorses or votes for o Partisan You may make your decisions based on which candidate is Democrat or Republican just because that’s all you know “Infotainment” o Soft news, Latenight “Online processing” o Has nothing to do with internet o You being able to make an opinionated decision on something within a short time (think about the “Do you think Jennifer Lawrence is a good actress?”) o The average person makes constant adjustments in their head Does low political knowledge threaten democracy? 9/24/15 PRESIDENTIAL APPROVAL RATINGS & “RALLY ROUND THE FLAG” EFFECT Presidential Approval Today, gauged in regular intervals o “Do you approve or disapprove of the way Barack Obama is handling his job as president?” o More specific questions on the economy, foreign affairs, taxes, etc Why important? o Gives president leverage: In Washington Bargaining Rollcall votes (A recorded vote in Congress) With Public Barometer for upcoming elections Determinants of Approval Rating Best predictor: o Consumer expectations Typical deviations: o Honeymoon effects Early in a president’s term, the public is more approving. Results in high ratings o Scandals Scandals mess up approval ratings. Results in lower ratings (except Bill) o Rally round the flag effect “Rally ‘Round the Flag” Effect What is it? o Following “rally events”, approval ratings of president dramatically increase What is a “rally event”? o Directly involves U.S. o High media attention o Salient to public (Important to the public) o Often an international event Rally Events Examples: o War o International Crisis o Assassination attempt o Terrorism These events confront the nation as a whole o Enormous media/public attention Why do people “rally”? Look to the President because: o Symbol of country o Presidential action possible *** Media focuses on president Why high approval? o Media Priming (What to think about) focus on ‘rally event’ Overall Trends Approval traces economic sentiment, except: o During “honeymoon” o After “rally” events o During Scandals Approval typically declines over presidency o Exceptions? Ronald Reagan Bill Clinton Media drives public opinion 9/29/15 MASS MEDIA – FUNCTIONS AND PROBLEMS Positive Functions Transmit political information o It is the job of the media to give citizens political information about what is happening Gatekeeping o The media is telling us what is or is not newsworthy Watchdog o Expect the media to investigate/shed light on stories that may not make it to the public. We expect them to uncover corruption and wrong doing in politics Raise Salience of Issue o They raise the importance of certain issues in the public consciousness Problems with Media Agenda Setting o Def: Covering an event/issue means that others are less likely to be covered o Why does this happen? “Newshole” is constrained There is a finite ability of the media to cover information Pressure to cover the sensational... “If it bleeds, it leads” Priming o Cues public to think about certain issues when making decisions Example: Rally ‘Round the Flag Effect (George W. Bush) Welfare Framing o The way the media presents a story affects: Who is to blame? How should government respond? Example: Poverty experiment o Societal vs. individual frames Ideological Bias o Liberal bias? Media members o Conservative bias? “Misperceptions, the Media, and the Iraq War” Corporate Bias o Almost every single piece of media you see/watch/use are owned by six big corporations 21 Century Fox Time Warner Comcast CBS The Walt Disney Company Viacom Own 70% of the cable we watch o Synergy – promoting their other platform and shows over all of their stuff. (Just think the Marvel body example that was on ESPN) o Clickbait – click on stuff to see news. (21 shocking things, number 4 will surprise you) o Journalists vs. Corporations – What journalists want to report and show versus what the corporations want because they want money Accessibility o Can someone understand the news they are being exposed to Hurting America? o They are just a part of the strategy and not providing the viewers with a balanced view o Not performing those basic functions the media is supposed to perform MEDIA TRENDS AND CONSEQUENCES Media Coverage of Elections: Trends & Consequences: o Tone Positive to Negative Consequence: Rising distrust among public Consequence: Hostility between candidates & press Consequence: “Soft news” & “Infotainment” o Style Descriptive to interpretive Consequence: Voters less informed o Issues Reporters’ issues Consequence: Voters adopt media frames/primes o Content Substance declining Consequence: Personalized news Consequence: Sound bites and “horserace” coverage “Horserace” Coverage Frontrunners more intense scrutiny o Ex. Romney, Hillary Clinton, Dean Gaining ground more positive coverage Losing ground can’t do anything right o Bush: 1992, Dean: 2004 Media Coverage of Politicians: Feeding Frenzy Causes o Advances in technology o Competitive pressure o Political events o Character matters o Nosey public 10/8/15 PARTIES & IDEOLOGY What is an ‘ideology’? Def: System of beliefs in which one or more organizing principles connect the individual’s views on a wide range of issues What Roles Do Ideologies Play? o Structure policy preferences o Govern how we perceive the political world Masses vs. Elites o Fundamental different roles of ideology between the two o Differences in terms of: Stability: Low for masses; high for elites Cohesion: Low for masses; high for elites o Tribalism If you and I are in different political parties, and you are for something, then I am against it OneDimensional Model Ideology: o Liberal (left) Moderate Conservative (right) More Appropriate Model Twodimensional model o Social dimension o Economic dimension Multiple locations possible o Various ideologies can be placed What is your ideology? o 10 o 20 o 20 o 0 o 0 50 o 10 o 0 o 0 o 0 o 0 10 Centrist leaning left Conservatism Minimal role of gov’t o National smaller o State larger o No gov’t interference with marketplace o Gov’t involvement in moral issues Liberalism Larger role of gov’t o National larger o State smaller o Regulation of capitalism and welfare state o Limited gov’t role in moral issues Libertarianism Perfect economic and social selfgovernance o “Classic liberalism” Eliminate laws restricting behavior o “Harm” Interfere with someone else’s freedom. If I pick an apple from a tree, you can’t come take my apple but you can pick a different one Parties and Ideology Where are parties located? Do ideology and PID always coincide? Consequences of TwoParty System Convergence? Marginalized voters o Voters who do not see a candidate that looks anything like them o Independent voters Libertarian, Authoritarian Centrists o Partisan voters Moderate partisans? Do not have a lot of representation IS THERE A ‘CULTURE WAR’ IN AMERICA? 10/15/15 INTEREST GROUPS Types of Groups Institutional groups o By being a member of the institution therefore you are a member of the group All have a collective shared interests Membership groups o Groups that you join that advance some type of issue Private interest/economic groups Private – advocate on behalf of their members (Labor Union) Public interest groups Advocating benefits for everyone beyond just people who are members of the group Why join groups? o Job security / economic benefit o Aggregation of resources Money Votes Power of the individual ** o Get stuff o Advance some cause o Belonging, meet people with shared interests What Do Groups Do? Support candidates o Rallying support in terms of votes and money Political Action Committees (PACs) Super PACs Lobbying o Time, info Mobilize members o Contact their elected officials o Boycotts, marches, other demonstrations Litigation o Amicus Curiae (Friend of the court) – writes briefs to encourage the Supreme Court to hear or not hear a case, or if it is on the docket for them to rule in favor of your position o Sue – help someone file or fund a case (Brown v Board case was funded by NAACP) Differences in Group Power Why?? Resources o Money, Info, Organization Number of members o Ability to mobilize those members Congruence of goals with public opinion *** “Special” interest groups AARP – 37 Million members. These people vote at high levels o Each member has to pay $16 a year (more like 25M of them, Still like $400M) Freerider Problem Public Goods: o Characteristics: Nonrival One that if you get more doesn’t mean others get less of it Nonexcludable Someone who isn’t a member or not helping produce that good is not excluding from getting the benefits of it Examples? o Clean Air o Safe roads o National Defenses Characteristics Free Rider Problem Free Rider one who benefits from the actions of others without “paying” o Think the review session and group project example Overcoming FreeRider Problem Peer Pressure, solidarity incentives (Small Groups) Coercion o Finding some way to force people to participate Force freeriders to “join” Penalize noncompliance Selective benefits o Rewards, freebies Ex. AARP – advances the interests of old people Gives the members lots of discounts and benefits Is “Lobbying” Bad? Abramoff Scandal 10/20/15 POLITICAL PARTICIPATION – CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL Unconventional Political Participation Boycotts Sitins Marches Demonstrations Why? o Grievances not addressed Conventional Political Participation Join Groups Contact Campaign work Donate money and time Run for office Voting Voting: Expanding Suffrage Amendments: o 15 (1870) = Race o 19 (1920) = Sex o 23 (1961) = DC – President but not Congress o 24 (1964) = Poll tax o 18 (1971) = 18 years old, changes from 21 Explanations for Low Turnout Not compulsory Voter Registration o Features Not automatic Requires foresight Some states you have to register a certain amount of time before the voting day or else you cannot vote in that election Residency requirements For some states/district you have to live in that state for a certain amount of time prior to that election or else you may not be able to vote o Policies: MotorVoter Legislation Can register to vote at the DMV Voter ID/fraud Have to have a state issued photo ID in order to show up to vote. Belief that it would help prevent voter fraud # elections o There are a lot of elections going on. Asking people to go to the polls a lot Election Day (Tuesday, work day) o If you hold a job where you work on that day (most people), you have to find to either before or after or you have to take off. Some people do not have that luxury however. Lines are long for some places, weather conditions may suck Generational Change o Our grandparents had a sense of civic duty that we do not have. They felt it was their duty to the country to participate Voter apathy & efficacy o Voter apathy – people who do not care about politics and about voting o Voter efficacy – the belief that your vote matters Weather? o Weather affects turnout, but that does not mean it affects every voter everywhere. OBVIOUSLY Parties are weaker? o Political parties are weaker today than they were decades ago Irrational to vote? o The cost may outweigh the benefits Voter ID Fraud vs. voter suppression
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