2.4 Greek Philosophy, 2.5 Greek Art
2.4 Greek Philosophy, 2.5 Greek Art FDWLD101-01
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danae Sorensen on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FDWLD101-01 at a university taught by Brother Yost in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
2.4 Greek Philosophy - Philosophy: the idea that the universe can be understood though exercises and skepticism - 3 broad categories 1. Ontology- nature of being 2. Epistemology- nature of knowledge 3. Ethics- nature of right and wrong Pro-Socrates - Philosophers that came before Socrates - Divided between two “schools” - Milesian School - city if Miletus in Asia Minor - questions of ontology - Thales (624-546): sought out literal meaning of how the universe was created. He thought water - Anaximenes thought it was air - Pythagorean School - centered in Italy - questions of ontology - more interested in understanding laws or principles that lead to the holding together of the universe - the universe existed because it had perfect harmony - when humans discovered and lived by that harmony they would have a harmonious life - universe existence could be explained by reason Socratics - Socrates (569-399) - More interested in questions of ethics and epistemology - Left no writing of his own - works were recorded by his student, Plato - “knowing that I know nothing” - Socratic Method: argumentative conversation based on asking/answering questions that leads to ideas and presumptions - An incorrect hypotheses are eliminated that gets you a step closer to the truth - Knowledge is a “present remembering” of something we know before we were born and has been forgotten - Knowledge is only required in this life - The Republic: thoughts, methods, and teachings of his teacher Socrates in a series of dialogues and also on politics and government - Allegory of the Cave Socrates influence - Showed ignorance in others that supposedly already knew everything - Just like in Allegory of the Cave, Socrates was hated for saying everyone knows nothing. He was sentenced to death. - Socrates was offered an escape but refused - Plato established The Academy (est. 385 BC) in Athens - Emperor Justinian disbanded The Academy in 529 - Many professors moved to Jundishapur in Persia Aristotle - Student of Plato - Teacher of Alexander the Great - Founded Lyceum - Known as “the philosopher” or “ the master” - Physics, metaphysics, botany, medicine, politics, poetry - Rejected Platos belief in immortality of the soul - Nicomachean Ethics: defined virtue as two extremes- excess and defeat - Alfred North Whitehead: “all philosophy is a footnote to Plato” - Teachings adopted Muslims and Christians - During Hellenistic Period- Epicureanism and Stoicism Zeno the Stoic (335-263) - Emigrated to Athens from Phoenicia - Influenced Socratic - taught in the public plaza and stoic - believed in community or brotherhood of mankind and shared duty - indifference to suffering and pain - duty and law appealed to Romans - wanted to reveal the best way to live and finding happiness 2.5 Greek Art and Music Hellenistic Heritage - Greek language, culture, and thought spread - Romans greatly influenced - Mesopotamia, Egypt, Minoans, Mycenaean, Phoenicians and more: all adopted and adapted by people of Hellenistic world - Libraries at Alexandria collected and preserved it Elements of Hellenic and Hellenistic Civilization - Traces most important ways the heritage continues in the west today - Hardly any field of human endeavor untouched by Greek influence Pottery - Glazed pottery influenced by Egypt and Mesopotamia - Moved through phases - Geometric: Greek Dark Ages Pottery - intricate patterns - primitive execution - Archaic Period: nature and mythology inspiration - Execution improved during the Classical Period - black-figure: painting figures as black silhouettes and add red/white, counters images into clay - red-figure: reverse of black figure, dominant style of Classical Period, figures outlined in charcoal, details later added, great detail, scenes in mythology and Greek history - Quality declined during Hellenistic period Sculpture - 4 major phases: geometric, archaic, classical, Hellenistic - Hellenistic Period: - was not a decline in quality like is was in pottery - direct and emotional - Special treatment to the human form. - Resembles sculptures of Egypt - By Classical Hellenic Period it was more realistic shape and a relaxed pose - Deify the human form making the body a work of art - Greek sculpture resulted in a more realistic, muscular, and emotional aesthetic - Many were based off of athletics Architecture - Height in the Classical Hellenic and Hellenistic Periods - Parthenon: - compeleted in 438 BC - commissioned by Pericles before Peloponnesian War - finest achievement in the Hellenic architecture - built on the Acropolis of Athens - “hallmark of Classical Greek” - dedicated to Athena - metopes: panel sculptures - Entaisis (optical illusion): tall columns were slightly bulged in the middle - Huge impact in many civilizations in the world - Frieze: a broad horizontal band of sculpted or painted decoration Alter of Zeus - Example of par excellence - Built in Pergamum in Asia Minor - Completed in the first half of second century - 1878-1886: - German engineer, Carl Humann began excavations - negotiated the removal of many friezes - wanted to relocate everything to Berlin - a museum was built over it to preserve it - Architectural inspirations - theaters and stadiums - mymphaeum: fountains - propylon: gateways - agora: public square - bouleuterion: circular town hall - mausoleum: tomb - stoa: storied colonnade
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