HSC160 Week 3 Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Miner on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HSC 160 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Otiam in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 113 views.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
HSC160 Notes WEEK 3 25 January 2016 Chapter 3 – Stress (Chapter 2 Mental Health Review) 1. Panic Disorders a. Panic attacks or anxiety that result in a physical reaction 2. Phobias or Phobic Disorders a. Definition: involve persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation often out of proportion b. Example: fear of spiders or public speaking 3. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder a. Compulsion to perform rituals over and over again. Persistent intrusive thoughts that cannot be shaken from the mind b. Example: unnatural concern about order and exactness 4. PostTraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) a. Occur in people who have experienced or witness a traumatic event i. Victims of natural disaster, violent assault, war 5. Personality disorders a. Patterns of behavior and inner experience that deviate from individuals 6. Schizophrenia a. Alterations of senses, biological disease 7. Attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a. Neurobehavioral disorder associated with distraction 8. Mood Disorders a. Affect your emotions and how you feel b. Caused by: i. Biological factors, hormonal levels, family history, life experiences, or trauma, serious loss, financial problems, or pressure to succeed. c. Related to the levels of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters d. Depression i. Women: more commonly experience depression in comparison to men 1. Higher depression rate among adolescent women in comparison to men ii. Men: less likely to admit being depressed & masked by substance abuse or excessive working 1. Higher risk for heart disease due to depression 2. Higher suicide rate in comparison to women iii. How to treat depression: 1. Therapy and medicine 2. Setting realistic and responsible personal goals 3. Be with other people 4. Exercise, religious activities, social activities 5. Meditation, yoga, mindbody practices e. Major Depression: i. Symptoms: sadness, despair, loss of motivation, preoccupations with failures, loss of sex drive, loss of energy, sleeping too much or too little, worthlessness, withdrawl from family and friends ii. Reoccurring thoughts of suicide f. Dysthymic Disorder (dysthymia) i. Chronic , midl depression ii. Symptoms: must persist for at least 2 years iii. Lack energy, shorttempered, pessimistic g. Bipolar Disorder (manic depression) i. Triggers: biological, genetic, environmental factors, trauma, drug abuse ii. Can be treated with counselling and medications iii. Victims swing between mania and depression h. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) i. Irritability, apathy, craving, weight gain, increased sleep i. Personality disorder is “enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectation of the individuals culture and is pervasive and inflexible” 9. Psychological disorders: personality disorders a. Narcissistic, antisocial, border line personality disorder ______________________________________________________________________________ Iclicker Questions 10. PEOPLE WHO HAVE EXPERIENCED REPEATED FAILURES AT THE SAME TASK MAY EVENTUALLY QUIT TRYING ALTOGETHER. THIS PATTERN OF BEHAVIOR IS TERMED: Learned Helplessness 11. EVERY WINTER JOSE SUFFERS FROM SADNESS Seasonal Affective Disorder ____________________________________________________________________________\ HSC 160 Notes 27 January 2016 Chapter 3: Stress ______________________________________________________________________________ Iclicker Questions 1. EVEN THOUGH ANDRE EXPERIENCED STRESS WHEN HE GRADDUATED FROM COLLEGE AND MOVED TO A NEW CITY, HE VIEWED THESE CHANGES AS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR GROWTH. THIS TYPE OF STRESS IS: Eustress (Positive Stress) 2. DURING WHAT PHASE OF GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME HAS THE PHYSICAL AND SYCHOLOGICAL ENERGY USED TO FIGHT THE STRESSOR BEEN DEPLETED Exhaustion ______________________________________________________________________________ 1. Stress: the mental and physical response and adaptation by our bodies to the real or perceived changes and challenges in our lives a. Caused by: stressors i. Stressor: real or perceived physical, social, or psychological events that strain ability to cope b. Distress: negative stress i. Worrying about things you can’t change, chronic c. Eustress: good stress i. Working out, studying, getting married d. Acute Stress: intense stress that comes and goes quickly i. Episodic acute stress: regularly reacting with intense acute stress e. Chronic Stress: lingers, lasts a long time, can eventually harm bodily functions f. Traumatic Stress: result of witnessing or experiencing traumatic events i. War, assault, natural disasters 2. Response to Stress: a. General Adaptation Syndrome: physiological responses evolved t protect us from harm. i. Alarm Phase: the cerebral cortex perceives stressor and triggers an autonomic nervous system response preparing for action 1. Fight or Flight ii. Resistance Phase: The body tries to return to homeostasis by resisting the alarm response. 1. Body does not achieve complete calm or rest iii. Exhaustion phase: hormones, chemicals, and systems that trigger and maintain the stress response are depleted and the body returns to balance 3. Nervous systems a. Autonomic nervous system: i. Portion of the central nervous system that regulates bodily functions 1. Heart rate or glandular functions or breathing 2. Two Types: a. Sympathetic: activated during arousal of stress response i. Release of stress hormones (cortisol, ACTH, adrenaline) b. Parasympathetic: counteracts sympathetic _____________________________________________________________________________ HSC 160 Notes 29 January 2016 Chapter 3: Stress ______________________________________________________________________________ Iclicker Questions 1. LIZ KEEPS LOSING THE KEYS TO HER CAR. WHAT TYPE OF PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS DOES THIS EXEMPLIFY? Hassles 2. WHAT IS AN EXAMPLE OF HOW TO INCORRECTLY MANAGE YOUR TIME? Procrastinate ______________________________________________________________________________ 1. Effects of Stress: a. Headaches: 3 types i. Tension: feelings of dullness or tightness in head ii. Migraines: head ache lasting longer that 472 hours iii. Cluster: feelings of stabbing or defined pain b. Sleep problems i. Average sleep a night = 78 hours ii. 60% of people report that they suffer from sleep problems caused by stress iii. Sleep deficiency: causes poor grades, gained weight, alcohol abuse , relationship problem, higher levels of cortisol (stress hormone) 2. Psychosocial Stress: refer the factors in daily routines in both social and physical life that cause stress a. EXAMPLE: hassles, change, pressure, relationships, frustration 3. Internal Stress a. Appraisal: interpretation and evaluation of information i. Based on past experience and emotion ii. Associated with deciding if you have the ability to complete a task b. Selfesteem: how you feel about yourself c. Selfefficacy: the confidence in the ability to do something d. Psychological resilience & hardiness i. (Determine your ability to cope with internal stress) ii. Control, commitment, and willingness to embrace challenges iii. Capacity to maintain and regain psychological wellbeing when faced with adversity 4. Coping: How you manage your stress a. To reduce: use mental workouts i. Example: examine a problem, list options to solve, plan, evaluate 5. Cognitive Restructuring a. Reorganizing patterns of negative thinking b. (similar to “reframing”) 6. Mental & Physical Approach (coping) a. Mindfulness: refers to observing present moment to increase awareness and help refocusing b. Cultivation happiness: have good control over emotions, engagement, meaning behind life