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by: Khatren Reed

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# Statistics Notes Psych 312

Khatren Reed
WSU

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These notes cover scales of measurement and descriptive statistics
COURSE
Introduction to Research Methods
PROF.
Samantha swindell
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
2
WORDS
CONCEPTS
Statistics, Psychology
KARMA
Free

## 2

1 review
"Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? Khatren has the best notes period!"
Holly McDermott

## Popular in Psychlogy

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Khatren Reed on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 312 at Washington State University taught by Samantha swindell in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Research Methods in Psychlogy at Washington State University.

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## Reviews for Statistics Notes

Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? Khatren has the best notes period!

-Holly McDermott

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Date Created: 01/31/16
2/2/16: Scales of Measurement Measurement: • Lets us test our hypothesis • Relates to our operational definition (how we translate variable/concept into something that can be recorded and measured) • Should be reliable and valid 1. Reliable (consistent/shows same effect repeatedly) 2. Valid (Reflects the variable you say it measures) Important to note: o A measurement can be reliable but not valid o A measure cannot be valid without also being reliable Internal validity of a study depends upon the reliability and validity of the measures within that study Scales of Measurement: Rules we use to transform observations into #’s Determines how we analyze, display and interpret the data Types of Scales of Measurement are: o Nominal • Numbers represent categories or labels • Differences between the categories are qualitative, not quantitative • You cannot add, subtract, multiply/divide data that is nominal • You can only calculate frequency/percentage in each category o Ordinal • Categories and rank • #’s reflect some degree of quantitative difference • Differences between values are not necessarily equal o Interval • Values related by a underlying quantitative dimension with equal intervals between the scale values • (Can be negative/positive and zero) • No absolute or true zero point o Ratio • Can add/subtract, multiple/divide • Cannot make claims based on relative magnitude • Can have absolute zero 2/4/16 Descriptive Statistics Frequency Distribution: st • 1 step for handling data • Indicates how frequently each value or score appears in the data set • Presented as a graph or table Example: Shoe Size Frequency 6 4 7 8 8 1 9 3 10 0 11 1 Mean To calculate mean: Add up row and divide by how many values are in the row Median The middle score (score that cuts the distribution in into 2 equal halves) Mode Most frequent score

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