Psychology 110, Week 3 Notes
Psychology 110, Week 3 Notes 21012
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ramsey on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 21012 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Khaddouma in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Psychology 110 in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Psychology 110Notes Week 3 Research Methods Measurement Operational Definition o A Working definition of what the researcher is measuring. Example: Self esteem o Much Disagreement over what it is o Currently made up of self-confidence, how well you think that you as an intentional human being bring about desired measurement. o Self-Liking CorrelationalResearch Measures the extent to which two things are related to each other Correlations can be an illusion (I.E. Shark attacks increasethe number of ice creamsales at a beach) o Third variable Does not determine causation Experimental Research Attempts to measure the effects of one (or more) things on another. o Random assignments to groups (sometimes blinded) Experimental group(s) Control group(s) Independent Variable o Manipulated by the experimenter Dependent Variable o Variable that an experimenter Measures to see ifit was changed by the independent variable Placebo effect o An effect in which a patient receives a non-effective treatment such as sugar pills or water that has a positive effect because they believe it will be helpful Nocebo Effect o When a patient believes something that is, in reality, un-harmful is actually harmful causing an adverse effect. Experimenter expectancy Effects o When researchers hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study (I.E. How has working at hooters damaged your self-esteem?) Psychology 110Notes Week 3 o Reason for double blinded studies Demand Characteristics o Cues that participants can pick up froma study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher’s hypotheses. Statistics Application of Mathematics to data o Descriptive – numerical categorization of the data o Just describes what the data looks like Inferential o Used to describe whether we can generalize findings from our sample to general population o Test associations among findings o Researchstudies often assume “normal curves” Negatively Skewed examples o Number of red blood cells (canget too low, rarely gets too high) Positively Skewed Examples o Income, number of children (most people have few, some people have a lot) Ethics Institutional Review Board Informed consent o Informing participants about what a study involved before they agree to take part Debriefing o Informing participants about the true purpose of a study if procedure involves conceit CorrelationalResearch Positive correlation o Both sides of the experiment go up (++) If you eat healthy and exercise, then you will end up healthier Negative Correlation o One goes up, and the other goes down (+-) Increasing your junk food consumption decreases your health Validity BiologicalPsychology Psychology 110Notes Week 3 Neurons o Require a lot of energy Dendrite is where information is received by a neuron Axon is what the information travels by Synapses and support cells Action Potential o The way a neuron transmits an electrical signal to another neuron. The brain works with electricity Within neuron message Electrical change created by ions exchangedacross axon membrane Either happens or it does not o Mus cross the threshold of excitation for action potential to occur Neurotransmitter o Chemical messenger that specializes in communicating between neurons Examples: Serotonin, dopamine Many psychoactive drugs alter amounts or neurons’ release ofthese chemicals Neuroplasticity o The ability of the brain to change.
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