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Psychology 110, Week 3 Notes

by: Ramsey

Psychology 110, Week 3 Notes 21012

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About this Document

Notes from the third week of class, from Research methods to intro to biological psychology
Psychology 110
Alexander Khaddouma
Class Notes
Psychology, brain, research
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ramsey on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 21012 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Khaddouma in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Psychology 110 in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Psychology 110Notes Week 3 Research Methods Measurement  Operational Definition o A Working definition of what the researcher is measuring.  Example: Self esteem o Much Disagreement over what it is o Currently made up of self-confidence, how well you think that you as an intentional human being bring about desired measurement. o Self-Liking CorrelationalResearch  Measures the extent to which two things are related to each other  Correlations can be an illusion (I.E. Shark attacks increasethe number of ice creamsales at a beach) o Third variable  Does not determine causation Experimental Research  Attempts to measure the effects of one (or more) things on another. o Random assignments to groups (sometimes blinded)  Experimental group(s)  Control group(s)  Independent Variable o Manipulated by the experimenter  Dependent Variable o Variable that an experimenter Measures to see ifit was changed by the independent variable  Placebo effect o An effect in which a patient receives a non-effective treatment such as sugar pills or water that has a positive effect because they believe it will be helpful  Nocebo Effect o When a patient believes something that is, in reality, un-harmful is actually harmful causing an adverse effect.  Experimenter expectancy Effects o When researchers hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study (I.E. How has working at hooters damaged your self-esteem?) Psychology 110Notes Week 3 o Reason for double blinded studies  Demand Characteristics o Cues that participants can pick up froma study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher’s hypotheses. Statistics  Application of Mathematics to data o Descriptive – numerical categorization of the data o Just describes what the data looks like  Inferential o Used to describe whether we can generalize findings from our sample to general population o Test associations among findings o Researchstudies often assume “normal curves”  Negatively Skewed examples o Number of red blood cells (canget too low, rarely gets too high)  Positively Skewed Examples o Income, number of children (most people have few, some people have a lot) Ethics  Institutional Review Board  Informed consent o Informing participants about what a study involved before they agree to take part  Debriefing o Informing participants about the true purpose of a study if procedure involves conceit CorrelationalResearch  Positive correlation o Both sides of the experiment go up (++)  If you eat healthy and exercise, then you will end up healthier  Negative Correlation o One goes up, and the other goes down (+-)  Increasing your junk food consumption decreases your health  Validity BiologicalPsychology Psychology 110Notes Week 3  Neurons o Require a lot of energy  Dendrite is where information is received by a neuron  Axon is what the information travels by  Synapses and support cells  Action Potential o The way a neuron transmits an electrical signal to another neuron. The brain works with electricity  Within neuron message  Electrical change created by ions exchangedacross axon membrane  Either happens or it does not o Mus cross the threshold of excitation for action potential to occur  Neurotransmitter o Chemical messenger that specializes in communicating between neurons  Examples: Serotonin, dopamine  Many psychoactive drugs alter amounts or neurons’ release ofthese chemicals  Neuroplasticity o The ability of the brain to change.


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