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Psych 2410 Week 3

by: Taylor Ragel

Psych 2410 Week 3 PSY 2410

Marketplace > Ohio University > Art > PSY 2410 > Psych 2410 Week 3
Taylor Ragel
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Child and Adolescent Psychology notes for week three. The first day was regular notes and the second was review. That will up next week.
Child & Adolescent Psychology
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Ragel on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2410 at Ohio University taught by Egan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Child & Adolescent Psychology in Art at Ohio University.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Psy 2410 Physical Development Patterns of Growth  During prenatal development and early infancy, the head takes up a large proportion of the body.  Cephalocaudal Pattern o Top – bottom  Proximodistal Pattern o Center – out Physical grown across childhood  Infancy o Newborns lost 5 to 7% of weight (first days) o Begin gaining 5 to 6 ounces per week (several weeks) o Doubled birth weight (4 months), tripled (12 months) nd o 2 year growth slows (1/5 of adult weight, ½ of adult height)  Early Childhood o % of height/weight gain decreases each year  Middle/Late Childhood o Slow consistent growth (2 to 3 inches per year, 5 to 7 pounds per year) o Noticeable changes in proportions (head, waist, and leg length) o Bones harden o Muscle mass and strength increase and baby fat decreases Puberty  Period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes o Early as 10, as late as 13.5 years – onset is beginning earlier  Precocious puberty: very early onset and rapid progression of puberty  Variables involved in onset o Heredity, hormones, weight, body fat Changes During Puberty  Growth Spurt: most growth since infancy o Girls: 3.5 inches per year, boys: 4 inches  Sexual Maturation o Boys: increase in penis and testicle size, pubic hair, vocal changes, first ejaculation, armpit hair, facial hair  Psychological: earlier on, see themselves more positively o Girls: breasts enlarge, pubic hair, armpit hair, hips widen, menarche Psy 2410  Psychological: younger age, not feeling as comfortable with themselves, higher chance of depression, alcohol assumption Body Image  Preoccupation with looks in common throughout adolescence o Girls more than boys o Girls become more and more dissatisfied while boys become more satisfied Brains  Brains help to regulate behavior, metabolism, hormones, and everything else  The brain is divided into 2 hemispheres (left and right) and four major lobes (frontal, occipital, temporal, parietal) o Frontal: critical thinking, personality o Occipital: seeing o Temporal: hearing, language o Parietal: visual processing Basics on Neurons  Dendrite: receives signal  Axon: carries signal across the synapse  Myelin Sheath: develops over time, cover, speeds up signal Prenatal Development  Neural tube closes off at both ends, massive production of neurons, cells migrate to final locations and begin to specialize in function  The brain continues to develop rapidly through infancy o Shaken Baby Syndrome  Study of infant brains is not easy o Positron – emission tomography (PET): expose children to dangerous levels of radiation o Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): require baby to stay still for along period of time o Electroencephalogram (EEG): one way to measure but does not provide much detail Early Experiences Effect the Brain Psy 2410  Children raised in deprived environments show depressed brain activity o Romanian Orphanages  Spend a lot of the time not being with people  Neuroscientist believe that REPEATED experiences wire the brain o Use it or lose it… connections that are used over and over survive while those are not used die off (pruning) Brain Development  At birth, brain is 25% of its adult weight  By two years, brain is 75% of adult weight  Two major events in infancy o Myelination  Development of myelin sheath o Dendritic Connections  Brain growth slows in early childhood, but patters within the brain vary o 3 to 6 years: rapid growth in frontal lobe o 6 through puberty: temporal and parietal lobes  Adolescence is characterized by pruning o Communication between and left and right hemisphere thickens o Advanced development of prefrontal cortex o Amygdala matures  Emotions Sleep  Sleep restores, replenishes, and rebuilds our brain and bodies  Infancy o Sleep 16 to 17 hours a day o 1 month: most babies sleep longer at night o 6 months: more like adult sleep  Most common problem is night waking (20% – 30% of babies) o Excessive parental involvement during sleeping hours (talking, picking up the baby, feeding) o Daytime crying and fussing, separation issues, co-sleeping  REM sleep o Rapid eye movement o Dreaming  Babies REM sleep is longer  Adulthood o Stages 1 – 4 are not dreaming, just getting in a deeper sleep Sleep in Childhood Psy 2410  Young children should get 11 to 13 hours of sleep (through the night or with a nap) o Kids getting less sleep have depressive symptoms, school problems, poor health, stressful home environment, had neighborhood  Sleep problems include narcolepsy (extreme sleepiness), insomnia (difficulty falling asleep), nightmare, or night terrors o Nightmare: remember what they were dreaming o Night terror: first four states, can’t remember, not dreaming Behavioral Interventions for Sleep  Children often refuse or resist going got bed, have delayed sleep onset, and prolonged night waking o Sleep hygiene  Routine  No naps o Graduate Extinction  Parents not coming in while the child is crying  Self soothing o Scheduled Wakening  Waking them up before they are scheduled so they sleep longer Teens Sleep A LOT  On average, teens sleep 9 hours 25 minutes when allowed to sleep as long as they want  Most teens do not sleep this much during the week because of school, sports, work  Sleep phase shifts o Melatonin (sleep hormone) is secreted around 9:30om in early adolescence and an hour later in late adolescence  Lack of sleep effects school performance o Schools have begun to change start times to later Leading Causes of Death  Motor vehicle accidents  Cancer  Cardiovascular disease  Influenza/pneumonia  Septicemia Psy 2410  Respiratory disease  Firearms Nutritional Needs in Infancy  50 calories per day for each pound they weigh (more than 2x recommended for adults per pound)  US parents don’t feed their children enough fruits and vegetables o Most common vegetable eaten by 15 months old: French fries  CDC has categories of obesity for adults but not for children Breast feeding vs Bottle Feeding  Breast fed infants have lower rates of weight gain  Breast feeding reduced the risk of obesity by 20%  Other benefits of breast feeding: o Children experience fewer GI problems, respiratory infections, allergies, asthma, diabetes, SIDS o Parents show lower rates of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and type 2 diabetes  Facilitates attachment and bond between mother and child Effects of Malnutrition in Infancy  Marasmus: severe malnutrition caused by an insufficient protein – calorie intake... results in shrunken, elderly appearance and muscles atrophy  Kwashiorkor: severe protein deficiency causes abdomen to swell with water Malnutrition in Childhood  11 million US preschoolers experience malnutrition  Most common complication is anemia which causes chronic fatigue Obesity in Children  African American and Latino children are more likely to be overweight than Caucasian children  Obesity is not just a problem in the US o Australia, China, Hong Kong, and others  Overweight children are at risk for o Pulmonary problems, sleep apnea, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol Psy 2410 o Social and psychological problems (low self esteem, depression, fewer friends) Why are kids obese?  Genetics  Greater availability of high – fat food  Decline in physical activity  Children’s eating behavior are strongly influenced by their parents’ behavior o Eating is healthier when parents schedule it regularly, model eating healthy food, make mealtime a pleasant occasion o Eating is more problematic when distractions are present such as TV, cell phones, etc. Exercise  Aids in the development of large muscles like arms and legs  TV watching is connected to obesity in children  Physical activity should occur daily o Preschool = 2 hours per day (1 hour structured, 1 hour unstructured)


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