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pages 60-77

by: Stephanie Robertson

pages 60-77 Psychology 110

Stephanie Robertson
GPA 3.6

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Notes on pages 60-77 of the book
Anastasia Kerr-German
Class Notes
psych 110, Anastasia, Kerr-German, Psychology, 110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Robertson on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 110 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Anastasia Kerr-German in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
P 60-66 Experimental Design:  What is an experiment made of? o Random assignment- When participants are randomly sorted into two groups. This is not the same as random selection. Random selection is how we pick participants. Assignment is how we group them. o Manipulation of the independent variable (I.V.)- the variable that is changed o If it isn't an experiment, you can't infer cause and effect. o Differences between people are made instead of just observed and measured.  Experimental group- Receives the change of the independent variable.  Control group- Doesn't change.  Dependent variable (D.V.)- Depends on the I.V., shows how well the I.V. did or didn't work.  Operational Definition- A definition that can be applied to the real world. Multiple occupational definitions can be accepted at once.  Confounding variable- Difference between groups that was not caused by the I.V. o Experiment must not have any confounds to have good internal validity. Pitfalls in Experimental Design:  Placebo Effect- A measurable, true improvement that comes from just expecting improvement.  Injected placebos have more affect than swallowed placebos.  Patients can become addicted to placebos.  Patients usually receive better effects from placebos that they think are expensive.  Some experts think that 80% of antidepressant effects are due to the placebo effect.  Attention- Placebo Control Condition- Where a counselor provides attention but no actual therapy. o Blind- Patients must not know whether they are being administered a placebo or not. Otherwise, their expectation will change and this will affect the results of the experiment.  Nocebo Effect- Harm that comes from just expecting harm. o Ex: Voodoo dolls, fake electric shock.  Experimenter-Expectancy Effect (Rosenthal)- This is when researcher believes so strongly in their hypothesis that their results can be unintentionally skewed to support it. o Double-Blind- Where both the patients and the researcher do not know who is in the experimental or control group.  Demand Characteristics- Cues (right or wrong) that participants pick up on about what the researcher wants to see. o To combat this, experimenters may disguise the focus of the experiment or put in filler questions/tasks. Ethics:  You shouldn’t take your participant in a brain-damage study and hit them over the head with a frying pan (obvious). But it might be hard to decide if you should study violence in dogs with brain damage by scaring the dogs to evoke violence.  Tuskeegee- Men with syphilis were studied but not informed of their condition. Effective treatment was withheld from them throughout and after the study. The men infected their wives. Most men died and some babies were born with syphilis.  Institutional Review Board- Reviews research to ensure good use of ethics. o Informed Consent- Researchers have to inform participants of what they’re getting in to in the experiment before they participate. o Some deception is approved by IRB’s for the sake of an experiment as long as no one is harmed. For this to be allowed the benefit of the study must outweigh the cost and the experiment has to be as such that it cannot be completed without deception. o A confedrate may be used (someone who pretends to play the part of a participant in a study but actually works with the researchers) o IRB may require a debriefing after the experiment is over.  Invasive research- Controversial research that relies on the harming of animals. 2 P 70-77 Statistics- Math used to analyze data.  Descriptive Statistics- Describe data o Central Tendency- Central result/cluster of scores.  Mean- Average. Usually the best statistic to evaluate data.  Median- Middle.  Mode- Most common.  Bell-shaped curve is normal o Skews usually happen when there is one odd outlier (score that is way outside of other scores)  Negative skew- elongated tail to the left.  Positive skew- elongated tail to the right. o Variability- How closely bunched scores are.  Range is easiest for determining this. Range is the difference between the highest and lowest scores.  Standard Deviation- Takes into consideration how far each point is from the mean (average) to determine variability. More accurate but also more time-consuming.  Inferential Statistics- Inferences (conclusions) drawn to apply statistics to the real world/full population. o Statistical Significance- When a finding occurs less than 5 in 100 times. Judges the probability that something happened by chance. The larger the sample is, the better chance a finding will be statistically significant. o Practical Significance- Importance in the real world. Findings could qualify as statistically significant but have no real-world application. o Be careful when looking at statistics! Sometimes they deceive and outright lie!  Ex: Truncated Line Graphs- Graphs that don’t start at 0. This causes data to appear different than it really is. Peer Review- Identifies flaws in a study’s conclusions and research methods.  Consider the source, is it reliable? 3  Look out for excessive sharpening and leveling. o Sharpening- Exaggeration. o Leveling- Minimalizing less central details.  Pseudosymmetry- Making things look like they are controversial when they are not. 4


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