Tonga: Fieldwork, Migration, History and Culture
Tonga: Fieldwork, Migration, History and Culture Anthropology 130
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melodi Harfouche on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anthropology 130 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by De Pendry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Tonga: Fieldwork, Migration, History and Culture Cathy A. Small (1997) Voyages: From Tongan Villages to American Suburbs • History • Small’s Subject Position • Research Process – Key Cultural Consultants: Malia was one and eventually migrated to the U.S. – Other Research Methods: she did participant observation – Longitudinal Research – SelfReflexive Ethnography U.S. Immigration Policy 1790 Free White Persons (Men) 1860s Slavery Ends 1921/1924 National Origin Quota Laws 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act Legal Permanent Residency Some categories to obtain LPR: • Family Reunification – 2005: 58% of 1.1 million (Migration Policy Institute 2006) • Skilled Workers • Investors: if you are rich and start a business and hire 10 workers it’s a lot easier to obtain a VISA • Random Lottery – 2000: 8 million applications 10,000 selected 178 Tongans (Lee: 2003:294295) • Refugees/Political Asylum Cases Tonga: History • 1500 B.C. Polynesians come to settle • 875 Stratified Chiefdom • High Chiefs • Low Chiefs • Specialists • Commoner Farmers • 1150 “’Olunga” (Small gave the city she was at a pseudonym) became Tu’i Tonga capital • 1575 4Tiered Tomb Kava Drinking Ceremoniespeople get served the kava in order of hierarchy Kava Bowltraditional Kava Bowls made out of wood Religion • “Original” gods – Hikule’o (Supreme god) – Aloala (Rain, Wind, Agriculture, Harvest) – Maui (holding up the islands) – 5 sea gods – god for craftsmen – At least 300 • “Soul” gods • “Mischevious” gods (Ferdon 1987) Celebrations • Community celebrations and exchanges • Ceremonial wealth (koloa) – Tapa cloths and mats (were used for the house or for clothing) – Baskets of food – Blankets, cash, etc. (cash is not traditional, but is slowly making its way into the celebrations) • Weddings and funerals • First birthday, 21 birthday • Tau’olunga – special dance performed by women Mats, Tapa Cloth, Baskets takes a lot of work to make tapa cloth and mats Lakalaka (group dances at community celebrations) Kinship and Raising Children • “The Tongan Way” (anga fakatonga) – Respect (including tapus) – Exchanges, Obligations (kavenga) – Outside/Inside (Tongans want everything to be separate, they would hate the idea of an open living space; ex. eating place is completely separate) • Kinship and Households – Father = head – Brothers, Sisters – Eldest brother (supposed to get the property), Eldest sister (spoiled as a kid, but has a lot of responsibilities when older) – Father’s sister – Mother’s family – Adoption Contact with Europeans • 1616, 1643 Dutch Explorers • 1770s Capt. James Cook (British) • 1797 London Mission Society (Vason) • 1810s Cargo ships, Whalers • 1820s Wesleyan Methodist missionaries Wars of Succession / Civil War • 1834 Rising chief converts to Methodist church • 1845 He declares himself King George I • 1875 Passes legislation allocating land, taxes, some chiefs benefit • 1900 British Protectorate • 1954 Independence • Queen Sālote Tupou III (1918 – 1965) • King Tāufa’āhau Tupou IV (1965 2006) • King George Tupou V (2006 – 2012) • More democratization is starting to occur • King Tupuo VI (2012 – present) Umu (earth oven)
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