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Tonga: Fieldwork, Migration, History and Culture

by: Melodi Harfouche

Tonga: Fieldwork, Migration, History and Culture Anthropology 130

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Knoxville > Anthropology 130 > Tonga Fieldwork Migration History and Culture
Melodi Harfouche

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About this Document

These notes cover the migration, history, and culture of the Tongans that we covered in class.
Cultural Anthropology
De Pendry
Class Notes
Tonga, Tongans, migration, Anthropology 130, Cultural Anthropology, Culture
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melodi Harfouche on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anthropology 130 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by De Pendry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Tonga: Fieldwork, Migration, History and Culture Cathy A. Small (1997) Voyages: From Tongan Villages to American Suburbs • History • Small’s Subject Position • Research Process – Key Cultural Consultants: Malia was one and  eventually migrated to the U.S.  – Other Research Methods: she did participant  observation – Longitudinal Research – Self­Reflexive Ethnography U.S. Immigration Policy 1790 Free White Persons (Men) 1860s Slavery Ends 1921/1924 National Origin Quota Laws 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act   Legal Permanent Residency Some categories to obtain LPR:  • Family Reunification – 2005: 58% of 1.1 million (Migration Policy  Institute 2006) • Skilled Workers • Investors: if you are rich and start a business and hire  10 workers it’s a lot easier to obtain a VISA  • Random Lottery – 2000: 8 million applications   10,000 selected 178 Tongans (Lee: 2003:294­295) • Refugees/Political Asylum Cases Tonga: History • 1500 B.C.   Polynesians come to settle • 875 Stratified Chiefdom • High Chiefs • Low Chiefs • Specialists • Commoner Farmers • 1150  “’Olunga” (Small gave the city she  was at a pseudonym) became Tu’i Tonga capital • 1575 4­Tiered Tomb Kava Drinking Ceremonies­people get served the kava in  order of hierarchy Kava Bowl­traditional Kava Bowls made out of wood  Religion • “Original” gods – Hikule’o (Supreme god) – Aloala (Rain, Wind, Agriculture, Harvest) – Maui (holding up the islands) – 5 sea gods – god for craftsmen – At least 300 • “Soul” gods • “Mischevious” gods (Ferdon 1987) Celebrations • Community celebrations and exchanges • Ceremonial wealth (koloa) – Tapa cloths and mats (were used for the house or for  clothing)  – Baskets of food – Blankets, cash, etc. (cash is not traditional, but is  slowly making its way into the celebrations)  • Weddings and funerals • First birthday, 21  birthday • Tau’olunga  – special dance performed by women Mats, Tapa Cloth, Baskets   takes a lot of work to make tapa cloth and mats Lakalaka (group dances at community celebrations) Kinship and Raising Children • “The Tongan Way” (anga fakatonga) – Respect (including tapus) – Exchanges, Obligations (kavenga) – Outside/Inside (Tongans want everything to be  separate, they would hate the idea of an open living  space; ex. eating place is completely separate) • Kinship and Households – Father = head – Brothers, Sisters – Eldest brother (supposed to get the property),  Eldest sister (spoiled as a kid, but has a lot of  responsibilities when older) – Father’s sister – Mother’s family – Adoption  Contact with Europeans • 1616, 1643 Dutch Explorers • 1770s Capt. James Cook (British) • 1797 London Mission Society (Vason) • 1810s Cargo ships, Whalers • 1820s Wesleyan Methodist missionaries Wars of Succession / Civil War • 1834 Rising chief converts to Methodist  church • 1845 He declares himself King George I • 1875 Passes legislation allocating land, taxes, some chiefs benefit • 1900 British Protectorate • 1954 Independence • Queen Sālote Tupou III (1918 – 1965) • King Tāufa’āhau Tupou IV (1965 ­ 2006) • King George Tupou V (2006 – 2012) • More democratization is starting to occur • King Tupuo VI (2012 – present)  Umu (earth oven)


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