Social Theories Anthropology 130
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melodi Harfouche on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anthropology 130 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by De Pendry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Theoretical Trends in Cultural Anthropology Historical Particularism In the United States. Focus on Native Americans. Describe cultural artifacts and knowledge. Assumption: Indigenous cultures were disappearing in the face of modernity, so anthropologists needed to “salvage” that knowledge. Another important goal: Promote cultural relativism (vs. racism and sexism) Franz Boas (considered to be father of anthropology) and his students, including: Ruth Benedict Margaret Mead Patterns of Culture Culture and Personality StructuralFunctionalism Developed in Britain and France. StructuralFunctionalism kind of theorized that everything functioned in a sort of harmonious way British and French had an idea that society has a certain structure Bronislaw Malinowskifounder of ethnographic research method: first person who argued that it’s really important to live in the culture/with the culture so you can observe everything, down to how people go to the bathroom A. R. RadcliffeBrown. Claude LéviStrausshe applied StructuralFunctionalism to the mind Cultural Evolution and Cultural Ecology Concerns: Adaptations to Environments. Leslie White, Julian Steward and others. Political Economy Concerns: Power Relations and Social Inequalities. Stresses social inequalities based on class. Influenced by Marxist theory. Marx thought social class was very important Cultural Interpretation and Reflexive Ethnography • Reflections about power relations involved in ethnographic research and writing. In particular, reflections about the role of the ethnographer in conducting and writing up the research. • Questions scientific claims to objectivity and truth. • Situates ethnography in history versus “ethnographic present” which made generalizations about groups. Paul Rabinow (1977) Reflections on Fieldwork in Morocco • 1968 (12 years after Morocco had achieved independence from France) • Rabinow’s Subject Position: he is from the U.S., relatively young, spoke fluent French • Research Process Richard Ibrahim: takes Arabic classes w/him and starts learning things about his own culture as much as he was learning about Morocco’s culture Ali Mekkiwas giving away too much information so he was sent off to school Malikkey cultural consultant PostModern, PostColonial, Feminist, Diaspora Studies, etc. • Changes in the forms of modern society • Accounts for disparities among countries and the historical legacies of European colonialisms • Accounts for inequalities based on sex, gender, and race ethnicity that were not sufficiently accounted for by political economy’s emphasis on class.
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