Middle Eastern History and Civilization Notes
Middle Eastern History and Civilization Notes ASH 1044
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by clb13m on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASH 1044 at Florida State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Middle Eastern History and Civilization in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Celia Bonett A good caliph is humble, thoughtful, and creates a strong, unified state. Like Abu Bakr, a caliph should be generous and frugal with himself (AlMas‘udi). A humble ruler is eminent because it shows he puts the people before himself and does not abuse his power for his own personal gain. In juxtaposition to the leaders covered in jewels and wearing the finest robes, a sensible, prudent ruler appears much more relatable to his people, and as a result have stronger support (AlMas‘udi). Along with a greater base, the caliph would also have greater funds and ability to use his money and power to improve the lives of his people. The Election of Uthman, formed by Umar ibn AlKhattab, was a notable moment for him as a caliph (Gordon, 105). By creating a committee of members from multiple powerful tribes who can choose the next caliph, I believe the people had a greater chance of having a better leader because the representatives in the committee could collaborate in choosing a leader that best meets the needs of the society. Umar distributed some of his own power and making his rule slightly more democratic. The caliph should not become power hungry. When one begins to make decisions that go against the communal voice, he is abusing his power as civil ruler. An example of this is when Mu’awiya appointed his son Mu’awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, against the shura that should be appointing the next caliph (Gordon, 104110). Also, as shown with the Marwan and the Banu Marwan, and Banu Ummaya rule, a caliph who craves more power tends to put his needs beyond his peoples (Hamaz). As shown with past leaders, this commonly leads to violence, which weakens the state and leads the to the fall of his rule (Hamaz; Gordon 1113). Celia Bonett In regard to Abu Hamza’s comments on the past caliphs, his opinion is biased because he was _______ and so he hated Ali b. Abi Talib. Although saying Ali “did not achieve any goal,” Abu Hamaz makes good points (___#5___). A good caliph is one that unites the people and does what is best for the community religiously. Having a sensible, pious, and kind caliph would make a good ruler for everyone. There would not be a specific group of people persecuted, nor would the ruler become too greedy with his power. I believe if a caliph is an autocrat, and there is not a group of people with power, then it is very likely for one to forget to do what is best for the people because no one can stop him and he will just crave more power. Abu Hamaz, although possibly exaggerated, depicts this in his comments about the Marwan and the Banu Marwan rule (___8 and 11). The power is abused, usually maintained through violence, and the rights of the people are forgotten. A leader must unite the people socially and religiously. Having a leader that performs socially unacceptable actions openly, he should not rule his people. The caliph should not become power hungry. As shown with the ___ rules, a caliph who craves more power tends to put his needs beyond his peoples. This commonly leads to violence towards his community, and others if one tries to expand his territory. Also, when one begins to make decisions that go against what the community wants, he is abusing his power. An example of this is when Mu’awiya appointed his son Mu’awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, against the shura that should be appointing the next caliph. Just : 3 groups of jews, 2 groups of muslims (ansar and myhajiru), and some Christians Constitution: state allowed monotheist religions allowed (pagans not welcome – unless they convert to a monotheistic religion) Conflicts between jews and muslims 2 tribes moved out b/c of the tension, persecuted, some converted tension b/c more jews were coming out and taking ansar’s place not many Christians in the city at the time overtime excluded other religions (until just muslims) = unjust constitution favored muslims – believer cannot support a nonbeliever against a believers brother Qur’an was used to consult problems (how helpful is that for jews, why not torah?) Celia Bonett Caused exile in muhammads state – not just Spoils of war weren’t distributed evenly among umma (reward from joining war) Those who join are superior than those who don’t join What makes a person a good one – kindness, fair, empathetic, piety Look carefully at #5 – piety Ali was not pious (belief not strong enough to be a caliph) says “he cannot achieve anything” – comes from abu hamza – a Qurashi (who hates Ali – so of course he would say he is worthless Umar – second caliph One of the most powerful figures in muhammads time Supported abu bakr, and was appointed in bakr position once bakr died Comes w new idea w how to appoint next caliph – creates shura? Close to democracy – committee had members from many powerful tribes – chooses next caliph Expanded the Islamic state into Egypt and Islamic Syria Instituted the Islamic state and jurististic system, created a unified/strong (compared to byzantine empire) close formed army. Muaryiya – appointed son instead of using the committees
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