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Physics II- Ch 19 notes

by: ShayD

Physics II- Ch 19 notes 1012

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These notes combine both the class notes and the textbook summery. These notes cover Coulomb's law, electric flux, electric charge, Gauss's law, and electric field. Although we don't need to memori...
Basic Physics II
David Hornes
Class Notes
Coulomb's Law, electric flux, electric charge, Gauss's law, and electric field




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by ShayD on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1012 at University of Missouri - St. Louis taught by David Hornes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Basic Physics II in Physics 2 at University of Missouri - St. Louis.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Dudaie 1 Physics II: Chapter 19­ Electric charges, Forces, and Fields “Like attracts like” 1. Electric charge a. There are 2 types of charges on any given objects i. Negative (­) = electron  1. All electrons have some defining intrinsi­19roperties a. electric charge­ ­e= 1.60 x 10  C b. mass­ M  =e9.11 x 10  kg­31 ii. Positive (+) = proton  ­19 1. electric charge­ ­e= 1.60­2710  C 2. mass­ M  =p1.673 x 10  kg iii. Object with equal amounts of both charges have a zero net charge  Neutral  b. Conservation of electric charge  i. The total electric charge of the universe is constant, no physical  process can increase of decrease in the total amount of the electric  charge in the universe; electric charge can only be transferred  c. Polarization  i. The ability of charged objects to attract small neutral objects 1.  When a positively charged object is held near a neutral object  the opposite charges are attracted to the charged particles while the opposite charges are repelled a. This causes an induced polarization which leads to an  attractions  Dudaie 2 2. Coulomb’s Law   F=k |q1 |q2 | 9 a. r2 ; k= 8.99 x 10 i. He proposes that an idealized point charge q1 is separated by distance r from another point charge q .  2 ii. If both charges are at rest, the system is electrostatic  b. Compare to Newton’s law of gravity i. In both cases the force decreases as the square distance between the 2  objects  ii. Both depend on their intrinsic values 1. Gravity depends on the object’s masses 2. Electric forces depend on their charge  iii. Coulomb force has an inverse­square dependence on distance  1. The reason gravity dominates astronomy is because electric  forces cancel for neutral objects   c. Types of problems i. Net force­ the vector sum of the forces individually in a this is called  superposition  1. Individual forces on a linear path example 19­2 2. Individual forces  no  on the same line example 19­3 ii. Spherical charge distribution  1. Charge per area on the sphere  a. Surface area density, σ.  i. Q= σA­ active example 19­2  3. The Electric Field­ example 19­5 F a. E= q0   i. Electric field is the force per charge at a given location  1. F­ electric force 2. q 0 test charge  b. electric field of a point charge  |q1||q2 | i. F=k 2 r 1. If q is positive the field points radiate outwards  2. If q is negative the field is radially inwards Dudaie 3 4. Electric Field Lines a. When a system of equal and opposite charges are separated by a nonzero  distance, is known as an electric dipole  b. electric field lines contact the conductor at right angles  c. Parallel­plate capacitor  i. 2 conducting plates with opposite charges are placed parallel to each  other­ example 19­6  ii. Excess charge whether positive or negative moves the  the exterior surface of the conductor  5. Electric Flux  a. The electric field “flows,” through an area i. You can calculate it via Φ=EA 1. When the object is parallel to the  electric field Φ=0  ii. Dudaie 4 6. Gauss’s Law a. The electric field on the surface of the sphere has a constant magnitude  E=k q i. (r2 ii. Since electric field is everywhere perpendicular to the spherical  surface q 2 1. ϕ=EA= k( ))2 (Πr =)Πkq r a. From this we can derive a new constant­ permittivity of  free space ε0= 1 =8.85x10 −12 b. 4πk b. If the charge q is enclosed by an arbitrary surface, the total electric flux  through the surface Φ  i.  Φ= q/ ε0 c. Gaus sian surface i. A Gaussian surface is a closed surface in three­dimensional  space through which the flux of a vector field is calculated;  usually the gravitational field, the electric field, or magnetic  field.


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