Psychology 330 Week 4 Lecture and CH. 5 Notes
Psychology 330 Week 4 Lecture and CH. 5 Notes PHYS 202
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 202 at University of Oregon taught by Jenkins T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Physics >4 in Physics 2 at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
● The Anatomy of an Argument ○ consists of one or more statements that are used to come to a conclusion ■ support comes from the reasons(premises) ○ “the giving of reasons” ○ the act of reasoning ■ Old view/belief → new view or belief ○ If you cannot identify at least one premise and at least one conclusion, it cannot be considered an argument ○ Premises ■ the reasons ■ Premise indicators: because, for ,since, if ■ can be facts or they can be personal beliefs or opinions ○ Conclusions ■ have conclusion indicators as well ■ Natural Language: the language that has evolved over time to better enhance communication ■ Artifial Language: computer langugages ○ Arugments usually consists of assuptions, qualifiers, and counterargumen s ■ Assumptions ● no proof or evidence when stated ■ Qualifiers ● constraint or restriction to the conclusion ■ Counterarguments ○ Arguments should be able to be taken apart and put back together with relatively easy understanding ○ Convergent structure: where the two premises come together to form one conclusion ● The importance of Having an Open mind ○ If we constantly rely on our confirmation bias, we will be blinded by what we want to believe rather than what is actually in front of us ● Evaluating the Strength of an Argument ○ 3 criterion ■ acceptability and consistency of premises ● Only acceptable when it is true ● No contradictions ■ relationship between premises and conclusion ● Look at the source of the information ● How related are the topics ● Need to be adequate or have a sufficient amount of support ■ the unseen part of the argument or if aynthing is missing what is it ● Need to change point of view so that you can anticipate what the other side will argue ○ Sound Arguments ■ meet the three criterion ● Reasoning vs. Rationalizing ○ Rationalizing: we favor the information that will lead to a certain conclusion that we would like to see happen ■ influences which aspects of the argument will be considered missing ● Persuasion and Propaganda ○ mass suggestion or influence through the manipulation of symbols and the psychology of the individual ○ Can alter evidence and distort truth ○ usually use emotion rather than reasoning to get the attention of the people ● Explaining as Knowing ○ People sometimes use their personal knowledge to explain an arugment which does not also prove to be the most accurate ○ Unsound reasoning techniques used for the purpose of persuasion are called fallacies ■ Common fallacies ● association effects: if two events happen in the same time period, we associate them as being connected ○ used in politics to create guilt by association ○ Virtue by association: when labels appear to be sound ● Arguments against the person: name calling or calling out the people behind the issue rather than the issue itself ○ associate the person and the idea together ● Appeals to Pity ● Popularity and Testimonials ○ “bandwagoners”: conformity ● False Dichotomy ○ Called simplification or the Black White Fallacy ■ People must make a decision that cannot be determined Yes or No, there is an area of uncertainity ● Appeals to Pride or Snobbery ○ praise and flattery ● Card Stacking or Suppressed Information ○ Fail to state information that the other side is supporting ● Circular Reasoning ○ Premise is a restatement of the conclusion ■ drawn as a circle ● Irrelevant Reasons ● Slippery Slope or Continuum ● Straw person ○ weak and easy to knock down ● Part whole fallacies ○ flip sides of the same error ○ When people assume that because one thing said is true that everything must be true ● Appeals to Ignorance ○ Premise discusses something that the audience is unaware of and thus no evidence ● Weak and Inappropriate Analogies ● Appeals to Authority ● Incomplete Comparisons ● Knowing the Unknowable ● False Cause: Occurs when people believe that because two events occur together, or that one follows the other closely in time, that one caused the other ● Put Downs ● Appeals to Tradition: unstated assumption that what exists is best ● False Charge of Fallacy
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