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Psychology 330 Week 4 Lecture and CH. 5 Notes

by: Melissa

Psychology 330 Week 4 Lecture and CH. 5 Notes PHYS 202

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Physics 2 > PHYS 202 > Psychology 330 Week 4 Lecture and CH 5 Notes
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Ch. 5 Notes
General Physics >4
Jenkins T
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in General Physics >4

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 202 at University of Oregon taught by Jenkins T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Physics >4 in Physics 2 at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
● The Anatomy of an Argument  ○ consists of one or more statements that are used to come to a conclusion  ■ support comes from the reasons(premises)  ○ “the giving of reasons”  ○ the act of reasoning  ■ Old view/belief → new view or belief  ○ If you cannot identify at least one premise and at least one conclusion, it cannot  be considered an argument  ○ Premises  ■ the reasons  ■ Premise indicators: because, for ,since, if   ■ can be facts or they can be personal beliefs or opinions  ○ Conclusions  ■ have conclusion indicators as well  ■ Natural Language: the language that has evolved over time to better  enhance communication  ■ Artifial Language: computer langugages  ○ Arugments usually consists of assuptions, qualifiers, and counterargumen s ■ Assumptions  ● no proof or evidence when stated  ■ Qualifiers  ● constraint or restriction to the conclusion  ■ Counterarguments  ○ Arguments should be able to be taken apart and put back together with relatively  easy understanding  ○ Convergent structure: where the two premises come together to form one  conclusion  ● The importance of Having an Open mind  ○ If we constantly rely on our confirmation bias, we will be blinded by what we want  to believe rather than what is actually in front of us  ● Evaluating the Strength of an Argument  ○ 3 criterion  ■ acceptability and consistency of premises  ● Only acceptable when it is true  ● No contradictions  ■ relationship between premises and conclusion  ● Look at the source of the information  ● How related are the topics  ● Need to be adequate or have a sufficient amount of support  ■ the unseen part of the argument or if aynthing is missing what is it  ● Need to change point of view so that you can anticipate what the  other side will argue  ○ Sound Arguments  ■ meet the three criterion  ● Reasoning vs. Rationalizing  ○ Rationalizing: we favor the information that will lead to a certain conclusion that  we would like to see happen  ■ influences which aspects of the argument will be considered missing  ● Persuasion and Propaganda  ○ mass suggestion or influence through the manipulation of symbols and the  psychology of the individual  ○ Can alter evidence and distort truth  ○ usually use emotion rather than reasoning to get the attention of the people  ● Explaining as Knowing  ○ People sometimes use their personal knowledge to explain an arugment which  does not also prove to be the most accurate  ○ Unsound reasoning techniques used for the purpose of persuasion are called  fallacies  ■ Common fallacies  ● association effects: if two events happen in the same time period,  we associate them as being connected  ○ used in politics to create guilt by association  ○ Virtue by association: when labels appear to be sound  ● Arguments against the person: name calling or calling out the  people behind the issue rather than the issue itself  ○ associate the person and the idea together  ● Appeals to Pity  ● Popularity and Testimonials  ○ “bandwagoners”: conformity   ● False Dichotomy  ○ Called simplification or the Black White Fallacy  ■ People must make a decision that cannot be  determined Yes or No, there is an area of  uncertainity  ● Appeals to Pride or Snobbery  ○ praise and flattery  ● Card Stacking or Suppressed Information  ○ Fail to state information that the other side is supporting  ● Circular Reasoning  ○ Premise is a restatement of the conclusion  ■ drawn as a circle  ● Irrelevant Reasons  ● Slippery Slope or Continuum  ● Straw person  ○ weak and easy to knock down  ● Part whole fallacies  ○ flip sides of the same error  ○ When people assume that because one thing said is true  that everything must be true  ● Appeals to Ignorance  ○ Premise discusses something that the audience is  unaware of and thus no evidence  ● Weak and Inappropriate Analogies  ● Appeals to Authority  ● Incomplete Comparisons  ● Knowing the Unknowable  ● False Cause: Occurs when people believe that because two  events occur together, or that one follows the other closely in time,  that one caused the other  ● Put Downs  ● Appeals to Tradition: unstated assumption that what exists is best  ● False Charge of Fallacy   


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