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Anatomy 2 Test 1 Notes

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by: Caroline David

Anatomy 2 Test 1 Notes Bio

Caroline David
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My notes include all the notes and all the subjects covered for test 1. Includes notes and pictures from his slides.
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Giovanni Cassotti
Class Notes
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline David on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio at West Chester University of Pennsylvania taught by Giovanni Cassotti in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Anatomy Notes 1 In solvents and solutes, quality means concentration Concentration in your blood is 290 mOsm +_ 5  When you have 290 mOsm, and you are dehydrated the concentration of ions goes up because you have less water to balance it with. Concentration goes up to 293  Water always goes toward the higher number 290->293  So when water rushes in, the cell and blood both become 291.5 FLUCTUATIONS ONLY OCCUR WITHIN NARROW LIMITS Disturbance= stimulus Control system- nervous system/endocrine, which detect stimuli Sensors in control systems detect stimuli Error signal-disturbance Inverted amplifier- trying to reduce signal If the body sees a bad stimulus, it will work against it If parameter is below homeostasis, you get up regulation HOMEOSTASIS WILL NEVER BECOME EXACTLY THE SAME NUBER AGAIN, BUT WILL COME WITHIN NARROW LIMITS. So now, the new level is the new set point Beneficial-perspiration  Disturbance (raise in body temp)  Sensor (nervous system)  Inverted amplifier (decrease in body temp) Sweat is the body’s negative feedback response b/c when muscles contract they give off heat, so we sweat to cool ourselves down But again, our body temp will never go back to the right temp until stimulus is gone Positive feedback Will now amplify the signal NO SET POINT ADJUSTMENT, IT JUST GETS FURTHER AND FURTHER AWAY FROM EQUILIBRIUM Congestive heart failure  Disturbance (inability to pump blood from heart)  Sensor (nervous system)  Amplifier (amplified increase in heart muscle contraction)  So as the heart muscle is used more and more it gets really tired until it gets weak, stops working completely and the person dies Control systems Sensory neurons only send afferent info to PNS and CNS Motor neurons only carry efferent (out of CNS) Autonomic nervous system is made of  Sympathetic- fight or flight (mostly up regulation of organs)  Parasympathetic- resting and digesting (down regulate) DIGESTION? OPPOSITE!! When you want to down regulate, you use sympathetic When you want to up regulate, you use parasympathetic Somatic vs. Autonomic Page 525 Somatic Somatic One long neuron that Skeletal muscle releases acetylcholine Autonomic Sympathetic One long neuron with Smooth muscle one ganglion then short neuron that releases ach and NPH Autonomic Sympathetic One neuron leads to Glands adrenal medulla, then releases adrenaline into blood Autonomic Para One short neuron Cardiac Muscle goes to ganglion that releases ACH, then one long neuron Ganglion- where one neuron ends and another begins 2 neurotransmitters in CNS are ACH and Norepinephrine Pre-ganglionic neuron is before ganglion, and vice versa SOMATIC NERVOUS CONTROLS SKELETAL MOVEMENTS AND CONTRACTIONS VOLUNTARILY, AND AUTONOMIC DOES IT INVOLUNTARILY WITHOUT CONTROL  ANS does more of smooth muscle and cardiac, and SNS does skeletal  In SNS motor neuron cell bodies are in CNS and the axons extend to the muscle/organ they activate  ANS has the 2 neuron chain  SNS has absolutely NO GANGLION Innervated- nerve attached to an organ Character SNS ANS Neurons Always stimulated Can be stimulated Ganglia Absent Present Neurotransmitter ACH ACH + norepinephrine Organ stimulator Voluntary Involuntary UP OR DOWN REGULATION DEPENDS ON WHAT NEUROTRANSMITTER IS RELEASED. Both are influential but it depends on which system the hormone is used in. most of time ach down regulates in parasympathetic. Parasympathetic  Contained in cranial + sacral Ganglion CLOSE to target organ  Long preganglionic, short post ganglionic Sympathetic  Contained in thoracic + lumbar Ganglion far from organ  Paravertebral ganglia- group that run parallel to vertebral column  Pre-ganglionic short, post ganglionic long ANY GANGLION THAT RELEASES ACH IS CHOLINGERIC IF IT RELEASES NPH IT’S ADRENERGIC SAME GOES FOR RECEPTORS Types  Nicotine receptors- found on post-ganglionic neurons on para + symp  Found adrenal medulla cells  Cell membrane of skeletal muscle  Ach? ALWAYS used for up regulation Cholinergic Has receptors that bind to ach Is a type of nicotinic receptors Located in postganglionic neurons (para and symp) Adrenal medulla cells Skeletal muscle cells ALWAYS STIMULATORY Muscarinic  Located in all para target organs  And sweat glands  Effect can be inhibitory or stimulatory Adrenergic Norepinephrine Alpha/beta Alpha-stimulatory except for digestion Beta- inhibitory except for heart, because the heart only has beta receptors If signal hits an alpha receptor, then it is stimulatory People take beta-blockers for their heart, the medicine binds to the beta-receptors to prevent the heart from being stimulated Cerebral cortex (decision maker) Limbic lobe (controls emotions) Hypothalamus (the boss) Reticular formation (heart rate, breathing) Spinal cord (urination, defecation) The nervous system works immediately, but endocrine system varies from seconds to weeks because it has so many steps to go through Nervous system does muscles and glands, endocrine does metabolism and hormones Major  Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal and thymus Other  Pancreas, gonads Organs/tissues producing hormones  Adipose, intestine, stomach, kidney, heart MOST HORMONES ARE NOT STEROID HORMONES But, steroidal hormones are gonads and adrenal  They are made from cholesterol (fat) so they pass right through lipid membrane MOST HORMONES MADE FROM PROTEINS But proteins do not pass right through the fatty membrane, so they use secondary messenger systems to help them get through PIP- phosphoactidyl inositol phosphate  Binds to calcium, so the cell fires Releasing organ -> blood -> intestine -> target organ Interstitium- space between the blood vessel and the organ Amino acid based hormones cannot cross lipid membrane directly, because they are not fat soluble Secondary messenger system- mechanism to make cell aware of something by sending it messages Cyclic AMP 1. Hormone from blood binds to protein receptor a. First message the cell gets 2. Guanosine (g-protein) becomes activated by adding a P to GDP to make GTP a. G proteins then activate the enzyme 3. Active G protein activates Adenylate cyclase (enzyme) which breaks down energy and turns it into camp (molecule) 4. Camp is the second message, camp then activates inactive protein kinase a. Protein kinase needs camp to be activated 5. Protein kinase signals cell to respond in some way To make energy you need glucose and oxygen Adrenaline signals liver to release glucose So, here is how the autonomic nervous system affects endocrine PIP Calcium signaling 1. Hormone binds to receptor 2. G protein activated 3. G protein activated phospholipase which breaks down PIP 4. Phosphoactidile biphosphate has 2 phosphate groups 5. PIP2 breaks down DAG (diacyl glycerol) 6. There are 2 second messenger systems made from IP3 7. DAG activates protein kinase and cell responds 8. IP3 activates ER to release calcium to contract smooth muscle 9. Last step, land with comodulin Skeletal muscle contracts quicker because you get it right away Smooth muscle has to go through all these steps to be contracted Steroid Hormones  Are fats, so they go right through the membrane  Some go right into nucleus and bind to receptors  Forms complex and complex attaches to DNA  DNA goes through transcription and changes to mRNA  mRNA binds to ribosome in cytoplasm and turns it into protein (translation)  Proteins are important because we need it to replace protein that gets worn out in the muscle Hormones  Travel freely in blood or are bound to protein carriers  When releasing organ releases hormone, the concentration changes o When initially released the concentration is high, then decreases when it gets to target organ and when it’s broken down When you have adrenaline, once the excitement is over the adrenaline is broken down and the organ doesn’t recognize it anymore  Liver and kidneys receive filtered blood Have ½ life (amount of time it takes for hormone to get 50% of it’s optimal concentration in blood) can be seconds-30 minutes Hormone Release 1. Humoral- change in nutrient status, ionic status, or glucose a. This can cause release of hormones b. When you haven’t eaten and need ATP you use storage and use it up, concentration goes down 2. Neural- if nerve innervates organ and sends signals to be released a. SNS stimulates adrenal gland to release epinephrine or norepinephrine 3. Hormonal (most common)- has 2 releasing organs where the one releasing hormone causes another hormone to be secreted from another organ a. A drop in the hormone, causes that same hormone to be released again b. So the stimulus is when one of the hormones drops MUST KNOW STIMULUS FOR ALL 10 HORMONES HORMONAL Growth Hormone 1. Released because- Adolescence, or low levels of GH a. You grow at the same pace until you are about 12, then GH production increases and continues that way until it slows down around age 18 2. Where it’s released- anterior pituitary 3. Where it goes- all body organs especially bones and skeletal muscle 4. Why it stops- high levels of GH or hyperglycemia (high levels of glucose in plasma) a. GH converts stored fats into fatty acid (used for energy). So when you are eating a lot of sugar already, your body doesn’t need GH to break down glycogen because you already have enough energy so you end up being shorter and fat. HORMONAL Thyroid Hormone 1. Released because- falling levels of T3 + T4 or you are cold and need metabolism a. TH increases metabolic rate and body temp b. When you increase metabolic rate you increase the amount of mitochondria c. More mitochondria= high metabolism 2. Why it stops- when you body temp gets too high or metabolism too high so it stops producing it HUMORAL Parathyroid Hormone 1. Why it’s released- released when Ca levels go below homeostasis 2. Where it’s released from- parathyroid glands at back of throat 3. Where it goes- bone, intestine, kidneys 4. Why it stops- increase above homeostasis of Ca blood levels a. Need Ca for nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and blood clotting PTH up regulates the activity of osteoclasts, which break down the calcium in the bones so that it can be released into the blood. It also increases the amount the intestines retain/absorb Promotes calcium reabsorption in kidneys Absorption- when you absorb it from the food you eat for the very first time into your bloodstream. Blood goes into the kidney to be filtered and when the blood goes out the nutrients stay in the kidney where you can either pee them out or reabsorb it into the blood Reabsorption- when you get it from the kidneys and reabsorb it into your blood for the second time If too much Ca in blood, when the hormone shuts off Ca goes back into the bones, kidneys and blood If Ca levels are too high, you stop production of PTH PTH also encourages the organs to keep the calcium instead of peeing it out HORMONAL Adrenocorticotropic Hormone 1. Why it’s released- stress (fever, hypoglycemia) a. Cortisol (glucocorticoid means they are all in the adrenal cortex) converts stored fats + proteins into glucose b. Cortisol relieves stress w/ fever and hypoglycemia 2. Where it comes from- pituitary 3. Where it goes- adrenal cortex which releases a series of different hormones called glucocorticoids that regulate plasma glucose levels 4. Why it stops- too much Stress and fever uses up a lot of energy and glucose to fight it, so you need more HUMORAL Adrenal Gland Hormones 1. Why it’s released- decrease in blood volume, pressure Na levels a. Aldosterone- mineralcorticoid which affects Na ion concentration in the body b. Also includes norepinephrine and epinephrine c. Heart lungs and urine d. Aldosterone allows for sodium from the kidneys to be reabsorbed into bloodstream e. Water follows due to upset in concentration levels f. When you bring more salt, you bring more water, which increases volume in the vessels which increases blood pressure g. Na huge influence on blood pressure 2. Where it comes from- adrenal cortex 3. Where it goes- kidneys which is an important regulator of salt 4. Why it stops- when blood pressure gets too high NEURAL (because it’s released from brain, and stimulation is from somewhere in the body to the brain) Epinephrine + Norepinephrine (epinephrine is only a hormone, norepinephrine neurotransmitter) 1. Why it’s released- sympathetic NS says we need adrenaline in high-risk situations a. They increase heart rate, dilate bronchioles to allow for more breathing, and vasoconstrict blood vessels to increase blood pressure to allow for more oxygen around the body 2. Where it comes from- adrenal medulla 3. Where it goes- heart, respiratory system, bronchioles 4. Does not stop until you are not excited anymore, then levels decrease HUMORAL (change in glucose) Insulin + Glucagon 1. Insulin- brings glucose from blood to body cells to make energy, blood glucose goes down (happens with hyperglycemia) 2. Glucagon- brings glucose out of cells and into blood, brings blood glucose up (hypoglycemia) a. Glycogen- what glucagon breaks down (stored glucose) HORMONAL IS THE MOST COMMON Renal 1. Antidiuretic hormone- makes you retain water in kidneys 2. Decreases the amount you lose in pee 3. Hormone is high when you are dehydrated Reproduction 1. FSH (follicle stimulating)- male and female, used in egg and sperm production 2. Oxytocin- only in females, stimulates contractions for birth a. EXAMPLE OF BENEFICIAL POSITIVE FEEDBACK Aldosterone and ADH are opposites Blood and cardiovascular Composition  Blood is colorless under microscope  Whole blood- slide with all different cells and components  Plasma- blood liquid (white space in the slide) of normal blood  Formed elements- cells or fragments of cells in blood  Erythrocytes- RBC-look like infinity symbol because the harsh light gets rid of the center part o Called biconcave disc  Leukocytes- WBC (dark purple) have nuclei  Platelets- fragments of cells (purple dots) Blood composition  Put it in centrifuge and separate blood by weight  RBC heaviest so they stay at the bottom and plasma (yellow) sits at the top  Buffy coat- thin white layer between the 2 that contains the platelets and WBC Through this experiment you test for hematocrit- % of blood cells in whole blood  Determine what percent the RBC take up of the whole volume  Usually 45%  Lower than 45? Anemia (not enough, so you have less oxygen b/c RBC carry oxygen)  Anemic people are pale and always tired because they do not get enough oxygen to their cells  Higher than 45? Polycythemia- too much RBC and blood is very viscous and is harder to pump, which leads to your heart working harder and eventually a heart attack Plasma  90% water  Albumin- adds to the concentration of 290, so when you don’t have it, concentration goes down to 280 so water goes outside to 290 because it always goes toward the big number. Blood volume goes down, and BP goes down  Fats, amino acids, salts, gases, enzymes, hormones  Na, Ca, O, CO2 Albumin maintains 290 concentration and acts as osmotic buffer (regulates concentration of anything w/in narrow limits  The plus or minus 5 of 290 +- 5 is due to the protein albumin Erythrocytes  Erythropyosis- how RBC are made  All cells start off as stem cells  Becomes a committed cell once it gets the signal for what it’s supposed to turn into  Then it’s called a proerythroblast, then it undergoes steps 1. Rapid Mitosis (division) 2. Makes lots of ribosomes (makes proteins) 3. Hemoglobin (protein made) in high amounts for a couple days 4. Once it has made enough hemoglobin, it does not need DNA in the nucleus so it ejects nucleus 5. Reticulocyte (immature RBC) made and goes into the blood stream a. Make up 2% of total # of cells b. Means 98% are fully mature c. RBC slowly form after 2-3 days Now oxygen imbalance is called hypoxia- decrease in amount of O2 in blood  Anemia can lead to it, or increase in O2 demand from tissues  If you are lazy, then all of a sudden decide to sprint 2 miles, your tissues will need a lot more oxygen  Blood donor? They take RBC so you need to regenerate them 1. Kidney detects deficit in O2 level 2. Releases erythropoietin 3. Travels to red blood marrow 4. Up regulates Erythropyosis The time you get detection to the time you start working to make them is 7 days Gas exchange  Quaternary structure (folded many times)  Contain chains of amino acids  Have alpha 1 + 2 chains, w/ beta 1+ 2  4 chains of A4 in one hemoglobin molecule  4 chains put together referred to as globin 4 green discs represent the ion-containing heme group  C,H,N,O  Most important? Iron in the middle Oxygen carried in hemoglobin, and in heme group  Heme group carries 4 oxygens  Ratio of oxygen to hemoglobin is 4:1 Lungs -> heart -> tissues 4 oxygens for every hemoglobin molecule Fully oxygenated blood has 4, but as it goes through the body it can be <_ 3:1 Some give up, 3 or more Any blood that does not have 4:1 is deoxyhemoglobin Veins are not fully saturated w/ oxygen, that’s why it’s blue Destruction is 3-4 months  Spleen houses macrophages which destroy RBC  Macrophages eat RBC and recycle the globin chains + AA  So old RBC used to make other AA  Rest of the heme group is made into bilirubin- which contributes to pee and poop (gets rid of leftovers)  Albumin transports bilirubin Erythrocyte disorders Athlete’s anemia- if athletes train a lot for long periods of time, RBC get diluted by water. So percentage of RBC go down and they have hematocrit is below 45. W/in 24- 48 hours it goes back to normal Thalassemia- have misshapen RBC like ovals, that are thin and delicate. Globin chains absent or faulty Sickle cell- faulty heme groups when you try to unload the O2 into the tissues. So hemoglobin burst/rupture and cannot be used again Blood doping- athletes take blood out, put in in fridge for a couple days/weeks. So the body automatically makes RBC then close to the event, they put the blood from the fridge back into their bodies. That way, they have a very high RBC concentration and can make more energy and get more oxygen to muscles. Leukocytes (WBC)  Only complete cells (has to have nucleus) so RBC are not complete cells Protect against virus and bacteria infection 1. Bacteria releases chemicals into the cell (tissues) 2. WBC are in the bloodstream, so they must go through the capillaries 3. Capillaries have pores and WBC are too big to get through the pores, so they must squeeze through called diapedesis 4. WBC is now in Interstitium, they use amoeboid motion 5. Fluid inside the cell moves (think back to video) 6. They follow the chemical trail (chemotaxis) 7. WBC gets closer and closer to bacteria until it engulfs and eats it Types  Granulocytes-contain granules in cytoplasm (grainy inside) o 3- neutrophils, easinophils, basophils  Agranulocytes- do not have granules (clear inside) o Monocyte, lymphocyte Abundance- Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas Neutrophils Multi-lobed (3-6 lobes)- lobes are joined together 2x size of RBC Phagocytic bacteria Easinophils Huge granules stained reddish 2 lobes (only one with 2 lobes) 2x size of RBC Release digestive enzymes to destroy parasitic worms Basophils Coarse, dark purple, cannot see the nucleus, blackish 2x size of RBC Release histamine, (inflammatory chemical) You get a runny nose from this, so you buy antihistamine This also attracts white blood cells to the area Lymphocytes  Large, dark purple nucleus, nucleus is almost entire size of cell  Round and have the blue crescent moon where the nucleus isn’t  Act in immune response Monocytes  Large dark purple nucleus, LIGHT purple cytoplasm  Cell is not as dark, no granules Biggest of all 5, nucleus looks like kidney Leave blood stream and eat viruses and bacteria Platelets  Capillaries have huge holes (sinusoid)  Megakaryocytes try to get into bloodstream but are too big so they push against capillary wall, explode, and then break into the small pieces which are platelets and go into bloodstream  Age quickly, 10 days b/c they do not have nucleus and cannot make protein  Hemostasis-blood clotting Hemostasis 1. Vascular spasm- smooth muscle on blood vessels vasoconstrict to minimize blood loss 2. Platelet plug- travel toward damaged cells, swell, and adhere to plug the hole 3. Coagulation- blood turns from a liquid to gel 4. When platelets swell, they release chemicals that promote more platelets to come a. EXAMPLE OF BENEFICIAL POSITIVE FEEDBACK Coagulation 1. Damaged BV release chemicals 2. Chemicals react w/ calcium 3. They then make up prothrombin activator 4. Prothrombin is then converted to thrombin 5. Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin and becomes insoluble 6. END PRODUCT IS FIBRIN (MESH LIKE SPIDER WEB) 7. Fibrin mesh collects RBC which turns the liquid into a gel Blood typing  There is a recognition system in the body of RBC, so if something foreign comes in it destroys it  Glycoproteins called agglutinogens  ABO  A- have glycoprotein on surface of blood cells  B-Have B  AB-have both  O-have neither O-most common AB-least common A- round acceptor B- V acceptor AB- - AB is universal recipient O- round and V- universal donor AB can only donate to other AB’s Antigens- proteins found on the outside of RBC  Normally foreign to the body, except on RBCs  Body makes chemicals that combat antigens called antibodies  Antibodies made specifically to destroy certain antigens  If it fits, it destroys it So that’s why antibodies in the plasma do not in the antigen. B/c if it fit, it would destroy it Someone who has blood type A has antibody B When you donate blood they filter it, so all you are receiving is plasma and RBC PLAY GAME Rh Blood group  Described first in rhesus monkeys  8 different antigens  C, D, E are most common  Rh positive? You have at least one antigen or more  Rh negative? You have none  Where the – and + come from in A- and A+  Positives cannot donate to negatives, only other positives  Negatives can donate to everyone Hemodynamics- study of blood flow  Rheology- study of liquid through tubes  Viscosity of blood changes  More viscous- harder to pump out of heart  Human blood is a little more viscous than water  Adding RBC increases viscosity Scientist made L shape tube with stopper at the end  Filled tube with different viscosity fluids  Rate at which the fluid exited= flow rate  Inverse relationship  High V= slow flow rate and vice versa  Is viscosity is 3 times faster, the F rate is 1/3 He then made cylindrical tube and put the fluid under pressure  Pressure on the left was higher than pressure on the right  Flow rate is directly proportional to difference between the 2  Greater the difference between the 2 means higher flow rate P1-heart P2-tissues BP Represents 120/70  120-pressure at heart  70-pressure at tissues High BP-hypertension  140/100 means delta P is 40=higher rate of flow  People with high blood pressure have lower delta P  You have higher amounts of plaque in blood, so higher BP  Longer vessel= decreased flow rate Adipose is highly vascular As you gain weight you grow more blood vessels So you have a longer pathway= slower flow rate Any obstacle in blood vessels means higher pressure on the heart Flow rate is proportional to r^4 power of radius of vessels  Fastest change  Affects body the most  Increased diameter of tube and made it thicker and longer  Bigger vessels= higher flow rate w/increased pressure  Happens w/in seconds  Vasoconstricting BV- higher BP Hemodynamics  Aorta leaves heart and branches into arteries, then arterioles, then capillaries  2 ends of capillaries from arteriol end to venus end  It turns blue, then capillaries meet venules, then veins, then vena cava  Velocity highest at the very beginning and at very end (when closest to heart)  Slower as you go toward the middle so you have more time for gas exchange o Diffusion takes time Highest surface area in capillaries (highest cross sectional) Higher SA means slower BP Blood flow  Blood moves in layers o Laminar flow= layered  Want to be in the middle lane b/c the left and right lane are turning lanes o You have friction on the outside 2 lanes Continuous blood flow- nice and steady, found in the smallest BV capillaries Pulsatile- 2 steps forward and one backward, big BV  Called pulsatile b/c that is what’s cause it. You feel pulse then you feel it relax  Get pulsatile flow between heart and tissues in large arteries  If too close to heart, you get turbulent flow Turbulent flow  Flow right next to the heart  Happens any time there is an obstruction and the flow has to change direction  No layers  Also get turbulent flow w/ obstruction  Happens in veins because the veins have valves that serve as the obstruction Compliance  Tendency of blood vessel volume to increase as pressure increases  Blood vessels stretch to the amount of pressure inside them  You can feel the pulse b/c when blood shoots through the BV stretches  BV very elastic  C = change in velocity / change in pressure  P1-160 v= 5 l/min  P=120 v=3 l/min  C= .05 either time Veins are more compliant  Thin rubber band requires less force to stretch than one that is already stretched Lumen- inside of BV. Lumen of veins is thinner and so the veins can carry more blood Veins carry 8x more blood, and are 3x more elastic. So veins can carry 24x more blood than arteries


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