World History II, Week 3 Notes
World History II, Week 3 Notes HIST 1020
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Tiffany Sippial in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
I. Legacies of the French Revolution Symbols French Revolution play cards 1793 o Trying to create new symbols o Figures represent new ideals Liberty, fraternity, and equality Little Red Cap o Name is Phrygian Cap o First emerged in Late Roman Empire worn by free slaves as symbol of freedom o Association of freedom from servitude and tyranny Calendar of Revolutionary France o Time has begun a new with Revolution o Changes in time Months have new names Year 1 is 1792; Declaration of Republic instead of birth of Christ Day of rest every 10 days Abolish Christmas Temple of Reason (1793) o Renaming buildings (Notre Dame) o Aligned with new revolution Music o New Revolution songs / 1300 new songs o Marsay French national anthem o Hymns many different o We will win (important song) Feeling: patriotic, high energy, pull you in Written to?: Third Estate Who is problem?: First and Second Estates Reminder of duty: speak up when someone is slacking or a traitor o People who don’t want to participate o Element of coercion o April 1793 formation of new committee Committee on Public Safety 12 members Task is to root out counter revolutionaries Necessary to maintain order Internal and external threats o War with England, Holland, and Spain All monarchies Raise largest army through mass draft Called Citizen's Army Maximilien Robespierre (1758 -1794) Lawyer Rise through the ranks of France o Great Orator, ideas promise actions o Ends justify the means Parliamentary procedure is slow Actions must be swift Reign of Terror o 10 months long o Most iconic phase of Revolution o Root out counter revolution threats o 1900 people one month executed 300,000 prison o Institutionalized repression Law of 10 June 1794 Any kind of evidence; duty to call them out France has started to pursue military victories Shift for approval of Robespierre methods People upset Using it to kill people he hated Arrest of committee27 July 1794 Robespierre declared outlaw Indiscriminate use of violence Condemned 28 July 1794 Marks end of radical phase o Solution 1: Directory Idea of shared power 5 men Weak, inept, conflicted, unable solve domestic issues o Solution 2: Napoleon Bonaparte Associated as number of military successes (Italian Campaigns) Symbol of might, success, order in period confusion Symbol of French potential Seizes power through Coup d'état in 1799 State Leadership in a Post-Divine Rule Era No more divine rule o 3 prong approach Domestic Policy Foreign Policy (most important) Military reputation Cult of Personality Write image out to the people at the right time Busts placed in towns / buildings Portraits (huge scale) Jacques-Louis David Creating the Modern French State Government o Centralized/Emperor (1804) Religion o Concordat of 1801 Law o Napoleonic (Civil) Code (1804) Education o Secular public education Economics o Improve infrastructure (roads/bridges) o Reduce price of bread Elevates propaganda as mythical tool Whoever controls media controls truth Arc de Triomphe (Paris, 1806) Build under Napoleon Monumental in scale Used architecture to celebrate success First Painter of the Empire Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) o Everything included/excluded in painting was determined by Napoleon o Neo Classical Style Greece, Grandiose o Napoleon only posed for one portrait Showed that he only cared about what story was tolf about him as a leader Important Paintings of Napoleon The Emperor in His Study (1812) o By David o Theme = hard man at work o Sword nearby shows he is a man of action o Candle burning = still working when others are sleeping o Stance means I am in possession of myself Napoleon Crossing the Alps (1801-1802) o By David o Pointing up towards success o Leadership over troops and France o Had a donkey, not a horse Napoleon at the Battle of Eylau (1807) o By AJ Gros o Battle in Eastern Russia o Not great battle for France, no clear victor o Bloody 15,000 Russian Casualties 25,000 French Casualties o Want the people to think about him leading rather than the amount of casualties Showing his connection and positive personal characteristics Coronation of Napoleon I o Notre Dame o He is placing crown on wife Josephine's head rather than the pope o Pope is drawn behind him Shows the loss of power in the church The World Napoleon Made o If he loses a battle he loses the hearts and minds of the people so he has to win Has to expand empire Maintain power Napoleon Approaching Moscow (1812) June 1812; wants to expand East Called the Russian Campaign o 600,000 men o Goal is to take Moscow o Napoleon and men arrive in Moscow The governor burned the city (scorched earth policy) Need shelter from winter but farm lands and shelter have been destroyed o Retreat and the Anguish of Defeat Rough went/ no shelter and food Defeated; limps home to Paris Comes back with only 30,000 = 30,000 devastation The "Emperor's Demise Act" (April 1814) and the Exiles of Napoleon Act passed by the Senate He was sent to Island of Elba (off coast of Italy) o He escapes; returns to France Defeated at Waterloo in Belgium Finally he was sent to St. Helena (South Atlantic) o Dies from Cancer May 5, 1821 o Final words: France. Army. Head of Army. Josephine. Power Vacuum for France "When Paris sneezes, all of Europe catches cold." - Prince Klemens von Metternich (Austria) Other Europeans want to step in Moment of opportunity Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Great Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia Holy Alliance: mandate is higher than politics 3 decisions 1. Redraw Map of Europe Push back to 1792 borders (before Napoleon) 2. Create confederation of German States Sit at Eastern border of France to stop them from expanding Act as a buffer 3. Restore French Monarchy Louis XVII (brother of Louis XVI) Impose marker of old measure of stability Not absolute monarch Constitutional Conservative retrenchment = turning back clock Consequences No single allowed to dominate Save Europe from war until 1914 (WWI) Legacies of French Revolution 1. Weakened political influence of aristocracy and clergy o End of privilege based on birth: careers based on merit o Limited monarchy (constitutional) 2. France transformed into modern state o Secular, rational (law), infrastructure (helpful for industrialization) o First to industrialize = Great Britain, then France 3. Practical application of ideas of Enlightenment o Individual subject becomes citizen (rights and duties) Citizenship focuses on governed and government 4. Revolutionary Fervor Exported --> Ex: Americans (Haiti) o Some countries fear this others are excited 5. French Revolution + Industrial Revolution --> Creating of European working class o New ideas about citizenship Phrygian Caps Continue to be an important symbol Represented in many different seals o Haiti, Argentina, Bolivia, Columbia, Cuba, and U.S. Senate Also shown in The Smurfs cartoon II. Avengers of the New World: Haiti Saint-Domingue's Relationship to France French colony (1697-1804) o Eventually become Haiti o Direct connection = interdependence Planation economy o Sugar, coffee, cotton, indigo o Major money producer 500,000 slaves o 10:1 ratio slave vs. non-slave 2/3 France's tropical imports 1/3 total French trade The Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) Discontentment o Class system tension o Also Race and the power held in different classes The Multiracial Hierarchy o Grands Blancs (European-born) Want Independence from France Born in France, live in Saint-Domingue Own property, planation, resent being part of France o Petits Blancs (Native-born whites) Access to positions of power: not just traders, merchants, clerks Property owners Excluded from upper social economic power because born in Saint- Domingue o Gens de Couleur (Free Mulattoes) Want Full citizenship: access to public office, political rights Mixed descent, born of plantation owners o Slaves Want Freedom from Slavery: not independence from France Boukman's Prayer (August 1791) Fighting between Grands Blancs and Petits Blancs is opportunity Results in the meeting of 1000 slaves o Voodoo priest delivers prayer (call to action) o Speaks in language most can understand Has language of the enlightenment o Begin destroying all reminders of the past Call others to rise up Avengers of the New Worlds Toussaint L'Ouverture o Freed slave, stayed on planation to work as foreman o Literate, catholic (taught to read and write as child) o No formal military training o Speaks to slaves as a slave (understanding) Jean-Jacques o L'Ouverture's second hand man o Brutalized as a slave Back full of scars Always tried to escape
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