Abnormal Psychology Week 4 Day 1 Notes
Abnormal Psychology Week 4 Day 1 Notes Psyc 2500
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by lucy allen on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2500 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Jennifer M Joy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Mood Disorders -two key emotions -depression: low, sad state in which life seems dark and its challenges overwhelming -Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, unipolar disorder) -mania: state of breathless euphoria or frenzied energy -bipolar disorder -cycles of mood disorders -depression is a dip in mood that stays consistent for a few weeks -then bipolar oscillates between positive and negative mood -usually over an extended period of time -rapid cycler: more common in borderline personality disorder, ups and downs in moods occur over shorter periods of time Unipolar depression -major depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability in the US for ages 15-44 -every year about 8% of the adult population suffers from a depressive episode -lifetime prevalence rates are about 19%, meaning about 1/20 adults will experience a depressive episode at some point in their lifetime -once you experience a depressive episode, your likelihood of experiencing another increases by about 10% -but others can experience a single episode and not another -gender difference -women twice as likely to experience MDD than men (20%, 10%) -women more likely to seek treatment than males, stigma attached to asking for help -no gender difference seen in childhood -emerges right around adolescence -if you are experiencing depression you are likely to experience another mental disorder such as -Generalized Anxiety Disorder (50% comorbidity) -4x more likely to experience a heart attack -25% comorbid with cancer -Parkinson's Disease (50% comorbidity) -eating disorders (50-75% comorbidity) -substance use (27% comorbidity) -symptoms -no interest in doing anything (anhedonia) -decrease in motivation (anhedonia) -change in weight -change in sleeping patterns (insomnia, hypersomnia) -headaches all day -self harm, suicidal or non-suicidal -how to assess these symptoms -clinical interviews -surveys -use of daily diaries and mood/behavior charting, etc. -functional symptoms -emotional symptoms: feeling miserable, empty, lack of pleasure -motivational symptoms: lacking drive, initiative, spontaneity -between 6-15% of those with severe depression die by suicide -behavioral symptoms: less active, less productive -cognitive symptoms: negative views of yourself, blame yourself or other people for unfortunate events, pessimistic -physical symptoms: headaches, dizzy spells, general pains throughout the day -according to the DSM, individual must meet one of the two criteria below to be considered depressed -depressed mood -apathy or anhedonia (lack of interest/pleasure in things you typically enjoy) -for children there is an additional criteria, they can be feeling irritated and cranky instead of down -change in weight -change in appetite -change in sleeping patterns (in/hypersomnia) -psychomotor agitation or retardation -speed up or slow down of your actions (movement or sleep) -fatigue -feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt -guilt does not match the situation at hand -trouble concentrating or indecisiveness -suicidal ideation or attempt -ideation is just thinking about it and making a plan -thoughts of death or dying is another component, no active interest in self harm but thoughts of what it would be like if things changed -diagnosing unipolar depression -DSM-5 lists several types of depressive disorders -Major Depressive Disorder: depressive episode with no mania symptoms, have to have symptoms for at least two weeks -dysthymic (DSM-4), Persistent Depressive Disorder: you have those types of symptoms for two years, maybe not as severe but longer lasting, still in the absence of mania -premenstrual dysmorphic disorder: when depressive symptoms come about during menstruation -disruptive mood regulation disorder: combination of PDD symptoms with recurring outbursts, involves mania -suicide -every year approximately 1 million people commit suicide worldwide -second leading cause of death for college students -untreated depression is the number one risk factor for suicide amongst youth -national differences -racial differences -whites are twice as likely as African Americans to commit suicide -gender differences -men succeed at higher rates, women attempt it more -age differences -suicide rates increase with age -especially for men -other group differences -rich, nonreligious, single and homosexual people are all more likely to commit suicide -physician assisted suicide (legal in Oregon and Washington, maybe more) -Dr. Jack Kevorkian -what causes Unipolar Depression? -stress -plays into many other disorders as well -biological factors -genetic factors -heritability of depression is around 30% -assessed using twin and adoption studies -concordance rates with identical twins (46%) -neurotransmitters, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors -serotonin remains in synaptic cleft, not taken up by the receptors on the postsynaptic cell, SSRIs block the reuptake by the presynaptic cell so that it is absorbed by the receptors -induces higher transmission of serotonin -molecular biology- 5-HTTLPR -coding gene that codes for the sites to release serotonin, there have been studies on this showing that if you have a worse version of this gene you are at a greater risk for depression -biochemical factors, endocrine system/hormones -brain circuits associated with depression -immune system -psychological factors -three models -psychodynamic model -not a lot of research available -looks at the link between depression and grief -unconscious process that begins, regresses to an oral stage, then introjection of the grieving feelings onto oneself, and then the persistence of these feelings develop into depression -strengths -support for loss: depression -early loss: greater risk for depression -lack of needs in childhood: greater risk for depression -weaknesses -inconsistent research -sometimes impossible to test -pathway isn't met 100% of time, just higher risk -behavioral model -more research available -depression results from changes in rewards and punishments people receive in their lives -strengths -support from research -weaknesses -largely self-reported -not good because pessimistic views, want to leave the situation, underestimates the severity of the situation -typically correlational and doesn't assess the actual number -cognitive model -negative thinking -Beck's Theory: cognitive triad -hold negative views about everything, but those playing into each other and come into play when an arbitrary event occurs (lack of saying hello, etc.) and considering it catastrophic -thought to be automatic thoughts -negative views about oneself can cause development of depression -strengths -strong empirical support -weaknesses -research fails to show that such cognitive patterns are the core of unipolar depression -learned helplessness -done with animals -subjected to shock on one side of a small fence, warned about the shock by a light flashing -no matter the decision they made they are shocked, eventually feel helpless -eventually lay down and take it, dogs learn to be helpless -placed in another box where choices did influence outcome of the shock, they still decided not to choose -significant research support for this model -recent versions of the theory focus on attributions (similar to what is seen in Beck's Theory) -internal attributions that are global and stable lead to greater feelings of helplessness and possibly depression ex: "its all my fault" (internal), "I ruin everything I touch" (global), "and I always will" (stable) -if people make other kinds of attributions it might not occur -strengths -lots of support -weaknesses -lab helplessness does not parallel depression -much of the research relies on animal subjects, missing unique human features -sociocultural factors -unipolar depression s greatly influenced by the social context that surrounds people -two kinds -family-social perspective -connection between declining social rewards and depression (as discussed by the behaviorists) is a two- way street -person feels abandoned, are left alone, cycle persists -marital stress: individuals divorced or separated show three times the amount of depression as those that are married -multicultural perspective -relationship between gender and depression has become interesting -theories have been offered -artifact theory: women and men are equally prone but women will seek treatment, and men fail to detect depression -hormone explanation: hormone changes trigger depression in many women -life stress theory: women in society may experience more stress than men (workplace and other interactions) -body dissatisfaction theory: females in western societies are taught to seek certain body beauty goals which when unmet become a problem for self views -lack of control theory: women may be more prone to depression because they feel like they have less control over their lives than male counterparts, men seem more dominant -rumination theory: people who ruminate when sad (constant churning of thoughts, typically negative), repeatedly consider causes and consequences of their depressive actions or symptoms -these theories just began gathering enough support for research to continue -relationship between cultural background and depression -nonwestern countries experience greater physical symptoms than cognitive -within the US, differences have been found -more cognitive symptoms than physical have been reported -Hispanic Americans and African Americans are 50% more likely to have episodes of depression than White Americans, can be related to treatment opportunities or simply efficacy of the treatment based on cultural differences -living in oppressive situations can contribute as well Bipolar Disorder -combination of manic and depressive symptoms -symptoms of mania- types -emotional symptoms -active, powerful emotions looking for an outlet, intense euphoric mood -motivational symptoms -must always be entertained, must have something interesting or exciting going on, or be doing what you would prefer to -behavioral symptoms -very active, move quickly, talk loudly or rapidly, flamboyance is not uncommon -cognitive symptoms -show poor judgment or planning, may have trouble remaining coherent or in touch with reality -physical symptoms -high energy level, often in the presence of little or no rest -combination of depressive and manic symptoms -manic symptoms: -abnormally, persistently elevated or irritable mood lasting at least one week -three or more of following: -grandiosity -decreased need for sleep -pressured speech -flight of ideas -distractibility -increased goal-directed activity/psychomotor agitation -excessive involvement in pleasurable activities -hypomania: suppressed version of mania -diagnosing bipolar disorders -DSM-5 distinguishes two kinds of bipolar disorders -Bipolar I disorder -full manic and major depressive episodes -most experience an alternation of episodes, some have mixed -more common of the two types -Bipolar II disorder -hypomanic episodes (less severe) alternate with major depressive episodes -diagnosing Bipolar Disorders -1%-2.6% of all adults in the world suffer from a bipolar disorder at any given time and as many as 4% over the course of their lives -equally common among gender -more common among people with low incomes -onset usually occurs between 15 and 44 years of age -cyclothymia -causes of Bipolar Disorder -first half of t20th century, search for cause has made little progress -more recently bio research ahs produced promising clues -come from research into neurotransmitter activity, ion activity, brain structure and genetic factors -neurotransmitter activity -permissive theory: low levels of norepinephrine in depression and high levels in mania -research has supported this -low serotonin levels in depression but not high in mania -mania is a combination of low levels of serotonin and high levels of norepinephrine -low serotonin levels is the gateway to mood disorders -ion activity -ions used to send incoming messages to nerve endings and may be improperly distributed/transported through the cells of individuals with bipolar disorder -brain structure -genetic factors -levels of heritability in Bipolar Disorder (identical twins: 40%, fraternal twins or siblings: 10%)
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