EXSS 175 Week 3 Notes
EXSS 175 Week 3 Notes EXSS 175
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lynde Wangler on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSS 175 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Dr. Johna Register-Mihalik in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY in Physical Education at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
EXSS WEEK 3 Notes 3A: The Axial Skeleton Skull, facial bones, spinal cord Types of Bones: o Long – compact, strong (femur, humerus) o Short – spongy on inside, not on surface (trapezoid, wrist bone) o Flat – plates of compact bone enclosing spongy (sternum, scapula) o Irregular – some compact, some spongy, varies depending on bone itself(vertebrae) o Sesamoid – develop in tendons or ligaments (patella) o Sutural Bones: in joints between skull bones The Human Skeleton: 206 bones in the human body o The Axial Skeleton: 80 bones; lie on longitudinal axis; includes skull, hyoid (only bone in body that does not articulate with another bone), ribs, sternum, vertebrae, & ear ossicles (teeny bones in ears that help with hearing) o Appendicular Skeleton: Upper and lower limbs and extremities, pelvic bones, & pectoral girdles Skull (22 bones): cranial (cranium) and facial (face) bones o Features – skull forms large cranial cavity and smaller cavities (nasal cavities and orbits); paranasal sinuses: mucus-lined cavities in skull that help to keep skull lighter and filter air that we breath in; mandible: only bone that can be moved voluntarily in the skull; sutures: joints that do not move and hold the skull bones together The 8 Cranial Bones: Frontal, Parietal (2), Temporal (2), Occipital, Sphenoid (holds everything together, articulates with the other bones), Ethmoid o These bones protect the brain and ear ossicles, as well as allow for jaw, neck, and facial muscles to attach o 14 Facial Bones – protect sense organs for smell (nose), taste (mouth), vision (eyes); entrance to digestive and respiratory systems Frontal Bone: forehead, roof of orbits (eye sockets), & anterior cranial floor/border, supraorbital margin (brow line; not a lot of muscle or fascia skin prone to bruising black eye), and frontal sinus (filter air and contribute to light weight of skull) Parietal Bones: sides and roof of cranial cavity; lateral aspects of skull Temporal Bones: temporal squama, zygomatic process forms part of arch (stereotypical cheek bone), external auditory meatus (hole for ear/sound), mastoid process (posterior to ear, you can feel it), styloid process (sits right below mastoid process; muscular attachment), stylomastoid foramen (CN VII), mandibular fossa (TMJ), petrous portion (CN VIII) o Carotid foramen (carotid artery bringing blood to the brain); jugular foramen (jugular vein that brings blood to the heart from brain) Occipital Bones: most posterior bone; foramen magnum (pathway for spinal cord to enter/exit skull), occipital condyles (bottom of skull; where skull sits on spinal cord), external occipital protuberance “bump of knowledge” (attachment site for ligamentum nuchae which allows skull movement and supports the spinal cord), superior and inferior nuchal lines (important muscular and fascia attachment sites) Sphenoid Bones: base of skull (articulates with many bones), pterygoid processes (attachment sites for jaw muscles), body is in the middle cube-like and holds sphenoid sinuses, greater and lesser wings (anterior view); optic foramen goes through so that optic nerve can innervate eyes; sella turcica holds pituitary gland Ethmoid Bone: forms part of the anterior portion of the cranial floor, medial wall of orbits, superior portion of nasal septum, most of superior sidewalls of nasal cavity; major superior supporting structure of nasal cavity; Crista galli – attaches to the membranes covering the brain (3 meninges) and is almost embedded in the brain (sometimes blunt force trauma can push this bone into the brain); responsible for deviated septums (when people break their noses) o More – lateral masses contain ethmoid sinuses (filtering and warming air and making skull lighter); perpendicular plate is upper part of nasal septum; superior and middle nasal concha or turbinates (filter and warm air that is breathed in) 14 Facial Bones: Nasal – form bridge of noes (2), Mandible – lower jaw bone, Inferior nasal conchae – sit deep inside the skull (2), Maxillae – sit right in middle of face (2), Lacrimal – medial aspect of obits for tear ducts (2), Zygomatic – essentially, cheek bones(2), Palatine (2), Vomer- forms part of nasal passageway (1) o Maxillary Bones – floor of orbit, floor of nasal cavity or hard palate; maxillary sinus; alveolar processes (hold upper teeth); cleft palate – condition in infants when maxillary bones do not come to grow together very fixable o Zygomatic Bones – cheekbones; forms lateral wall of orbit along with sphenoid bones; forms part of zygomatic arch along with part of temporal bone (easily injured) o Lacrimal Bones and Inferior Nasal Concha or Turbinates (not part of ethmoid bone) – forms part of medial wall of eye socket; lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sack (where tears are produced) o Mandible – only voluntarily moveable bone in the skull; body (main portion), angle (jaw bone – sticks out on some individuals; susceptible to fracture), and rami (portions that sit just anterior and inferior to ears); condylar and coronoid processes (help to form temporal mandibular joint TMJ); alveolar processes for lower teeth; mandibular and mental foramen (nerves pass through here – some innervate muscles of mouth or face) o TMJ: mandible articulates with temporal bone to form temporomandibular joint; TMJ syndrome is dysfunction of this joint (causes and treatments are numerous and vary) o Palatine – L-shaped with one end functioning as the back part of the hard plate and the other end is part of the orbit o Vomer – posterior part of nasal septum (sits just superior to palatine bone) o Nasal Septum – divides nasal cavity into left and right sides (ideally perfectly bisected into equal left and right sides but can be born different or have broken nose that causes deviated septum); formed by vomer, perpendicular plate of ethmoid, and septal cartilage o The Orbits (eye sockets) – contain eyeballs and associated structures and are formed by seven bones of the skull; 5 important foramina are associated with each eye socket (so that nerves can pass through and muscles can move the eyes) Bones of the Orbit: roof – frontal and sphenoid; lateral wall – zygomatic and sphenoid; floor – maxilla, zygomatic, and sphenoid; medial wall – lacrimal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxilla (there are also orbital fissures and optic foramen) Foramina of the Skull: (5) Foramen magnum – occipital bone; inferior part of brain connects with spinal cord (CN XI); vertebral and spinal arteries pass through this opening Optic foramen – sphenoid bone; optic nerve (CN II) and ophthalmic artery Mandibular foramen – mandible Carotid foramen – temporal bones (between greater and lesser wings); internal carotid artery; supplying blood to brain Stylomastoid foramen – temporal bone (between mastoid and styloid processes); CN VII (facial – allows for facial expression) and stylomastoid artery Unique Features of the Skull: o Sutures – immovable joints found only between skull bones; Coronal: joins frontal and both parietal bones Sagittal: joins two parietal bones Lambdoid: joins both parietal bones to the occipital bone Squamous: joins parietal and temporal bones o Paranasal Sinuses – cavities in bones of skull that communicate with the nasal cavity; have mucus-lined membranes; lighten the skull; serve as resonating chambers for speech (someone sounds nasally if their sinuses are filled or inflamed); cranial bones contain sinuses (frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillae); sinusitis – membranes of sinuses get inflamed due to infection or allergy (feels like pressure inside head and generally, painful) o Fontanels – dense connective tissue membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants (remain unossified at birth but closes during early child development) Functions: (1) enable fetal skull to modify size and shape as it passes through the birth canal, and (2) allows for rapid brain growth during infancy Major fontanels: anterior, posterior, anterolaterals, and posterolaterals (correspond with location of sutures of the skull later in life) o Hyoid Bone – U(nique)-shaped; single bone that does not articulate with any other bones; suspended by ligaments and muscles from the skull; supports tongue; provides attachment site for tongue, neck, and pharyngeal muscles (often fractured when an individual is strangled) LECTURE 3B Vertebral Column: o Spine has 26 vertebrae o 5 vertebral regions: cervical vertebrae (7), thoracic vertebrae (12), lumbar vertebrae (low back region, 5), sacrum (5, fused into one; number varies), coccyx (4, fused into one solid bone) Intervertebral Discs: between vertebrae; absorb vertical shock; allows various movements of the vertebral column (prevent bones from rubbing directly on each other); fibrocartilaginous ring with a pulpy center (gets squeezed out when someone has a herniated disc); intervertebral foramen Normal Curves of the Vertebral Column: o 4 normal vertebral curves – cervical and lumbar (anteriorly convex curves) & thoracic and sacral (anteriorly concave curves) o Fetus – only one single anteriorly concave curve; cervical curve develops as child begins to hold head erect (4 months); lumbar curve develops as child begins to walk (1 year); all curves fully developed by age 10 Typical Vertebrae: body portion is weight bearing; vertebral arch (pedicles & laminae); 7 processes (2 transverse, 1 spinous, and 4 articular); vertebral foramen (allows for passage of spinal cord all the way down the vertebra); vertebral notches (forms the vertebral foramen) Intervertebral Foramen and Spinal Canal: the spinal canal is made from all of the vertebral foramen put together; intervertebral foramen are between two vertebral notches together (superior and inferior) Cervical Region: o There are 7 cervical vertebrae – 1) atlas – supports the skull; 2) axis – a process that runs up through atlas allowing head to move from side to side; 3-6) have structural patterns of typical cervical vertebrae; 7) vertebra prominens – somewhat different structure; when you flex head forward, that vertebra sticks out o Atlas (C1) – ring of bone; superior facets hold occipital condyles; atlanto-occipital joint used for nodding head “yes” o Axis (C2) – body of axis is dens or odontoid process; movement at atlanto-axial joint signifies “no” Typical Cervical Vertebrae (C3-C7): smaller bodies with larger spinal canals because the spinal cord is thicker where exiting the skull; transverse processes are shorter and have transverse foramen for vertebral artery to run through; spinous processes of C2-C6 often bifid (have two posterior projections) Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-T12): large, strong bodies (not as much as lumbar); longer transverse and spinous processes; facets or demifacets on body to articulate with head of ribs; facets on transverse processes (T1-T10) for tubercle of rib Lumbar Vertebrae: strongest and largest (have to support the most amount of weight) with short, thick spinous and transverse processes; attachment site for back musculature allowing for stabilization and standing upright Sacrum: union of 5 vertebrae (S1-S5) by age 30; median sacral crest was spinous processes but is now fused together to form one crest; sacral ala “wing” is fused transverse processes; sacral canal ends at sacral hiatus (area for spinal cord to pass through and exit and terminate); auricular surface and sacral tuberosity of SI (sacrum and ilium) joint (overuse injury site in runners and other athletes) Coccyx: union of 4 vertebrae fused together by age 30; caudal or epidural anesthesia during childbirthinto sacral hiatus: anesthetize sacral and coccygeal nerves (waist down); sacral and coccygeal cornu are important landmarks Thorax: refers to the entire chest area o The skeletal part of the thorax (aka the bony cage, flattened from front to back) consists of the sternum (manubrium, body, and xiphoid process; sits anteriorly), costal cartilages, ribs (1-7 vertebrosternal true ribs, 8-12 vertebralchondral false ribs, 11-12 are floating), and the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae o Encloses and protects organs in the thoracic and superior abdominal cavities; provides support for the bones of the shoulder girdle and upper limbs Sternum – located on anterior midline of thoracic wall; consists of three parts – 1) manubrium (1 and 2 ndribs, clavicular notch – where clavicle attaches), 2) body (costal cartilages of 2-10 ribs), 3) xiphoid (ossifies by age 40 or earlier; area for CPR position) Ribs: o 12 pairs of ribs provide structural support to the sides of the thoracic cavity; 7 are true and 5 are false with the last two considered floating; rib fractures are the most common type of chest injuries or costal cartilages o There is an increase in length from ribs 1-7 but then decrease in length thereafter; head and tubercle of the ribs articulate with facets of thoracic vertebrae; body of the rib contains costal groove containing nerve & blood vessels; intercostal spaces (space between the ribs) contain intercostal muscles Rib Articulation: tubercle articulates with transverse process at the facet; head articulates with vertebral bodies at superior demifacet Disorders: “common” orthopaedic pathologies herniated disc; abnormal curvature of the spine o Herniated (slipped) disc – protrusion of the nucleus pulposus; most common in lumbar region from excessive stress or strain; pain due to pressure on spinal nerves; laminectomy (remove the lamina portion of the bone to alleviate pressure) allows for surgical removal of the disc o Homeostatic Imbalances (not in ideal condition) – abnormal curvatures of the vertebral column Scoliosis – lateral bending of the vertebral column; can be congenital or can develop over time Kyphosis – exaggerated thoracic curvature; extremely concave; humpback appearance Lordosis (lords of medieval ages) – exaggerated lumbar curvature; most common; too far convex anteriorly; pelvis sticks out Spina bifida – congenital defect caused by the vertebral laminae to unite at the midline; may involve more than one vertebrae; nervous tissue (that should be contained) may or may not protrude through the skin
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