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Organismal Biology -1030 - Week of February 14

by: Emma Shoupe

Organismal Biology -1030 - Week of February 14 BIOL 1030

Emma Shoupe
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes are from the first two classes since our first test.
Organismal Biology
Dr. Djibo Zanzot
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Shoupe on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Djibo Zanzot in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Organismal Biology – 1030 Dr. Zanzot Kingdom Plantae February 9, 2016  Derived from Charophyta, a lineage of green algae  Multicellular  Terrestrial or aquatic  Photoautotrophic  Cell walls made of cellulose  Movement by growth  Embryo protected by gametophyte tissue “Embryophyta”  Sporic meiosis  Major plant groups- o Bryophytes (3 phyla) o Seedless vascular (4 phyla) o Gymnosperms (4 phyla) o Angiosperms (1 phylum)  Bryophytes  Nonvascular  3 extant phyla  Dominant gametophyte generation  Small plants  Moist habitats  Water required for sperm disposal  3 phyla- o Bryophyta  True mosses  Gametophyte  Meiospore- prodsted by meiosis  Protonema – 1 , thread like  Leafy shoots, rhizoids  Antheridium (-ia) male  Splash cup  Sperm  Archegonium (-ia) female  Egg  Sporophyte – always diploid  Capsule and seta  Placenta  Calyptra  Operculum  Peristome  Dispersal  hygroscopic o Hepatophyta  Liverworts  Dichotomously branching thallus  Gemma(-ae) within gemma cup  Antheridiophore – male  Archegoniophore – female  Sporophyte  Foot  Capsule  Elaters on spores o Anthocerophyta  Hornworts  Anthoceros (local genus)  Simple, charophyte-like thallus  Horn-like sporophyte: dehiscent  Photosynthetic sporophyte  Horn (looks like grass) = sporophyte  “green goo” = gametophyte February 16, 2016  Vascular tissue o Dominant sporophyte generation o Gametophytes variable  Photosynthetic/non-photosynthetic  Attached/unattached  Above/below ground o Larger plants, somewhat dryer habitats o Being taller  better access to light for photosynthesis o Series of tubes  3 tissue systems-  Dermal tissue system o Outer covering layer, like skin o Similar to dermis o Prevents drying out  Vascular tissue system o Xylem- move water and nutrients from ground to plant body o Phloem- moves sugar to wherever needed  Ground tissue system o Fills space between dts and vts o Not root tissue necessarily o Used for storage and structure (stem) o Organs-  Roots  Stems  Leaves  Microphylls- 1 strand of vascular tissue/leaf  Megaphylls- 1 strand of branched vascular tissue o Growth and development  Apical meristems (meristem= zones of cell division)  Primary growth  Apex  Increase in height and depth  Lateral meristems  Secondary growth  Increase in girth (wider) o Evolutionary trends  Homospory  heterospory  Microspores  megaspores  Seedless vascular  4 phyla o Pteridophyta  True ferns  Megaphylls= frond  Usually pinnately compound (pinna [-ae])  Feather-like; dissected leaflets of a big leaf  Circinate vernation  Circular unfolding  Fittleheads- look like violin, young leaf  Rhizome (root-like) and adventitious roots  Sorus (-i)  cluster of sporangia  Indusium (-ia)  covering over a sorus (not all have them)  Annulus (-i)  Little ring (part of sporangia, changes shape… when opened, releases spores)  Gametophyte st  Protonema – 1 thread  Prothallus with antheridia and archegonia o Bisexual  Sporeling o Equisetophyta  Arthrophyta  Joint  Horsetails, scouring rushes, pot scrubbers  1 extant genus  equisetum (“living fossils”)  Hollow ribbed stem, toughened with silica  Whorls of microphylls  Strobili (cones) with sporangiophores, sporophylls  Elaters function in spore dispersal o Psilophyta  Whisk ferns  Lacking true leaves and roots  Dichotomously branching stems  Sporangia borne on stem  Ancestors used to have leaves and roots  secondary loss o Lycophyta  Club mosses  Ground pine  Resurrection plant  Quillwort  Microphylls  Strobilus (-i)  Cluster of sporophylls  Some homosporus, some heterosporus  2 life cycles of spores o Or…. o Monilophyta (super phylum)  Pteridophyta  Equisetophyta  Psilophyta  All separate clades- monophyletic – all share one clade o Lycophyta February 18, 2016 Seeds  Spores o Single, totipotent cell o Small, don’t require much to make o Very limited resources o Haploid cells  Seeds o Multicellular o Organs and tissue systems already developed – “a plant ready to go” o Telescoping of generations (diploid embryo) – seed coat protection o Nutrition for embryo o May have accessory tissues to aid in dispersal – elaters  A seed is “a baby in a lunchbox”  Embryo  Cotyledons – seed leaves (before developed)  Epicotyl – on top of  Hypocotyl – below, beneath (embryotic stem)  Radicle – a little root  Endosperm – food inside seeds; provides energy  Seed coat – protection o Fuel provided by fats from oils found in seeds o Gymnosperms – naked seeds  4 extant phyla  Vascular tissue  Dominant sporophyte generation, larger plants  Sporophyte gets larger, gametophyte gets smaller  Reduction of gametophyte generation, no flagellated sperm  Heterospory – 2 types of spores (mostly a seed requirement)  Seeds  Don’t rely on water to reproduce  Air force


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