Organismal Biology Week 2 Notes
Organismal Biology Week 2 Notes Bio 1306
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GEOL 1313 - 002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Rodriguez on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1306 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Lieb Week 2 2/1/2016-2/3/2016 How to Calculate Allele Frequency Formula= # of copies of the allele in the population/total # of copies of all alleles in the pop. Ex (pg 308): Let’s say there are two alleles A & a. Possible allele combinations: AA, Aa, and aa N AA = number that are homozygous for the A allele NAa number that are heterozygous for both alleles Naa number that are homozygous for the a allele So then N AAN + Aa= toaal # of individuals in the population. Frequency of allele A: p= 2N???????? +N???????? 2N Frequency of allele a: q= 2N????????+N???????? 2N Frequency of genotype AA: N / AA Frequency of genotype aa: N / N aa Frequency of genotype Aa: N /NAa p + q = 1 & 1-p=q & 1-q=p To predict the genotypic frequencies of the next generation: p +2pq+q or (p+q) 2 For any numbers given, plug them into the equations to get the frequencies. Full example is on page 308. Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Lieb Week 2 2/1/2016-2/3/2016 Random mating Every individual has equal opportunity of mating with another (panmixia) individual of the opposite sex. Assortive mating Individuals with similar traits mate; alters allele frequencies Positive: Individuals select mates that resemble themselves Negative: Individuals select mates that are different from themselves Sexual Selection When individuals mate preferentially with specific individuals from the opposite sex; example of nonrandom mating Hardy-Weinberg States that if certain conditions are met, allele frequencies will Principle not change from generation to generation; therefore, evolution will not occur, equilibrium state. Conditions: 1) There’s no mutation 2) There’s no selection among genotypes 3) There’s no gene flow 4) Population size is infinite 5) Mating is random Traits distinguished my qualities. Ex: smooth versus wrinkled Qualitative traits Quantitative traits Traits that can be quantified. Ex: height Polygenic traits Traits whose variations are produced by several genes and not alleles of one gene Stabilizing selection Preserves average characteristics of a population by favoring average traits. Reduces variation but doesn’t change the mean. Directional selection Favors individuals in one direction away from the mean. Disruptive selection Favors individuals in both directions from the mean. Unusual and may have a bad outcome. Motoo Kimura’s Neutral States that variation changes at the molecular level isn’t Theory (1968) caused by natural selection but by genetic drift of alleles that are neutral. Rate of fixation of Population size has no effect on mutation rate neutral mutations Synonymous Mutation Substitution that doesn’t change the encoded amino acid Nonsynonymous Mutation Substitution that does change the encoded amino acid Positive selection The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions exceeds the rate of synonymous substitutions The rate of synonymous substitutions exceeds the rate of Purifying selection nonsynonymous substitutions Advantage of Heterozygotes have a survival advantage against the changing environment because of their genetic variability heterozygotes Genome and noncoding The number of genes increases as the individual is more regions complex. Bacteria= hundreds. Eukaryotes= thousands. Genes that don’t do anything—noncoding—just gather. Sexual recombination Crossing over during Meiosis I produces genetic variation. Lateral gene transfer Horizontal movement of genes from one lineage to another. 3 ways: Bacterial transformation: bacteria pick up DNA from their environment when they deposit their bacteria Transduction of genes by viruses: viruses may pick up genes from their host Interspecific hybridization: Transfer of genes from one species to another species by hybridization CHAPTER 16 Phylogeny All organisms on this planet are related by a common ancestor Taxon Group of species with a name Nodes Branch points Clade Taxon that contains all of the descendants from the common ancestor Sister clades Clades that are each other’s closest relatives Character Attribute (flower color) Character State The forms of an attribute (yellow) Continuously varying: ear length such as size 10, 10.5, 11 Discontinuous: can’t be intermediates; 1 egg, 2 eggs, not 1.5 Ancestral trait The character that evolves Derived trait The trait that the character evolves to Convergent evolution Similar traits that evolve independently in different lineages
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