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Europe Today Notes

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by: Laura Batista

Europe Today Notes GEOG 464

Laura Batista

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First three weeks of class notes
Europe Today
Dr. John Pickles
Class Notes
geography, europe
25 ?




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"Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Laura!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol"
Katelin Marvin

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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Batista on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 464 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Dr. John Pickles in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Europe Today in Geography at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Laura!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol

-Katelin Marvin


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Date Created: 01/31/16
GEOG464: Europe T oday 01/11/2016 ▯ Transnationalism, Globalisms, and the Geographies of Pan-Europe ▯ ▯ PART 1: INTRO. TO THINKING GEOGRAPHICALLY ABOUT ‘EUROPE’ ▯ ▯ WEEK 1: ▯ 01/11: Why the Geography of Europe Today? ▯ ▯ 01/13: What is Geography? ▯ Key Questions: geo-grapheme: earth writing  What is geography? o  What are geographic questions? o  What are geographic concepts, and how are they used in answering geographic questions? o  Why are geographers concerned with scale and connectedness? o  Why do geographers use maps, and what do maps tell us? o  Five fundamental themes of geography o Location in space: the meaning of relative and absolute position on the earth’s surface  Fundamental and useful (real-time data)  Sample terms; latitude and longitude, site and situation, direction, distance, scale  Approximation to that surface, error and distortion  Relative size: when we map we distort these sizes  Skills: map reading, identification  Questions: where is _____? Where is _____ relative to where I am? o Place: the distinctive physical and human characteristics of a locale  Characteristics of these locations  Terms: physical and cultural landscapes, sense of place  Skills: description, compare and contrast  Questions: What does ___ look like? Why? How is it different from _____? o Relationships in and across space: the development and consequences of human environment relationships  Terms: ecosystems, natural resources, environmental pollution  Skills: evaluation, analysis  Questions: in what ways are human environment interactions occurring? How do they affect the place and its inhabitants?  Relationship to other places  How do we understand these relationships  Walter Christaller (Southern Germany): hierarchy of relationships, different functions to each region and town, looked hexagonal, map of location and relationship o Regions/ Landscapes/ Environments: how they form and change  Create identities for these regions  Terms: formal vs. functional regions  Skills: synthesis, application  Questions: how has this spatial pattern developed? Will it continue to change? What does it mean for the places involved?  Formal regions: areas with particular characteristics in common Caledonian mountains, North European lowland (plain), southern mountains  Spatial variation: predominant language  Integrated by Romans and later by the Roman Catholic church  Germanic language region, Slavic language region  Poland brought religion to a secular union such as the EU o Movement: patterns and change in human spatial interaction on the earth  Terms: migration, diffusion, globalization  Skills: explanation,  How does movement occur between these regions ▯ ▯ 01/15: Maps and the Making of Europeanness  Maps o Cylindrical: inaccurate representation of area and shape  As you go North and South, area is distorted o Mercator cylindrical projection: exaggerates area farther from the equator  Exaggeration of Greenland, Canada, Soviet Union, Europe, Northern hemisphere  Smaller Africa and South America  Map for navigating, perfect navigation map o Create maps in which area is retained  Equal area map but shapes of continents are distorted  Map to use for public policy, migration, etc.  Geography is o Geographic techniques o Physical geography o Human geography  Famous geographers o (Saint) Mother Teresa o Immanuel Kant  Geography was a certain kind of knowledge, which was not the same kind of science as biology  A necessary science for any kind of understanding of the world  Writing during the modernization of Europe  Asking the question what is this world? What is enlightenment?  Geography is a bridge between the natural and social sciences.  Geography is a holistic or synthesizing science.  Anthropo-geography: the propadeutic science  Necessary for the ‘free ‘man’” – to overcome self- imposed tutelage  To be cosmo-politan  To be a citizen of the world – of a modern society  First liberal democratic subject coming into being o Michael Jordan o Karl Ernst Haushofer o Prince William of Wales o General Augusto Pinochet  Cartography’s Foundation: A ▯ ▯ ▯ WEEK 2: Europe’s Physical Environment ▯ 01/20: Physical Geography – landforms  3 main parts o North-Western Mountain chain  Former mountain chain  Scandinavian through UK o North European Plain  Main Shapers o Tectonic Forces  Eurasia Plate moving east  Africa plate  North America plate o Plate tectonics o Mountain chains and volcanic activity  Alps/Pyrenees/Balkans/Caucuses  Caledonides  Urals o Major volcanoes in Italy  Stromboli, Etna, Panarea, Vesuvius o Mountain Chains  Pyrenees  Mountain range that extends along the border between France and Spain.  The Alps  Europe’s most famous mountain chain  France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and the northern Balkan Peninsula  “Cuts off” Italy from the North, but was also the path for cultural influences (e.g. Reformation to Piedmont Italy)  The Balkans, Carpathians, and Caucusus  Balkan mountains divide the Balkan Peninsula from Central Europe  Carpathian Mountains in Romania  The Caucuses Mountains form a natural barrier between Europe and Asia  Ural Mountains “The Great Divide”  Natural barrier between Europe and Asia  Mediterranean Sea  The world’s largest inland sea  Located between Europe, Africa, and Asia  Region around it has a dry, warm climate  Trading center  Black Sea  Dead sea b/c of pollution  No outlet below 30 meters o Glaciation  Pleistocene Glaciation – 1/3 of land surface  Ice erodes land and deposits it to the outer European plains  Zone south of the ice sheet is dry  Loess soil = richest soil in the world o Continental o Alpine o Ice sheet melting and sea-level rise  Glacial valleys  U-shaped  Connect to the sea  Norway (but also the lochs of Scotland)  Fjords  Created Baltic Sea o Islands  European islands – Iceland, Greenland, Ireland, Great Britain, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Ibiza, Crete  English Channel  Seas and Rive systems o Dutch Polders and Zuiderzee Barrier o Thames Barrier ▯ ▯ 01/27: Physical Geography – climates, and vegetation ▯ Main Shapers  Tectonic forces o Plate tectonics o Mountain chains and volcanic activity  Alps/ Pyrenees/ Balkans/ Caucuses  Caledonides  Urals o Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea  Glaciation o Continental o Alpine o Ice sheet melting and sea-level rise  Seas and River Systems  Capitals on River o London on the Thames o Paris on Seine o Vienna on Danube o Rome on Tiber ▯ Drivers of Weather and Climate  Solar radiation  Wind belts o Westerlies and Polar Easterlies  Ocean currents o Gulf Stream  Coming out of the south west and onto the atlantic, arctic eastlies  African weather systems (southern pat, below Pyrenees, alps, and Balkans)  Jet stream guides the flow of low and high weather systems  Eastilles replaced by the westillies  Intense heat expands, African conditions have penetrated the north European plain  Cool air advances Mountains block the penetration of the cooler air loss of moisture  European annual precipitation o Large and main rainfall in the Caledonites, the Alps o Northern England lots of precipitation  Climatic types o Humid oceanic climate  Temperature deviation o Whatever Europe is today is not what it will be tomorrow o Climate reworks itself  It is getting warmer (Global warming)  Very clear over the number of years there have been big fluctuations in annual temperature conditions  ENS “ensemble normalized system”  Come up with a range of weather and shift in temperature patterns ▯ 01/29:  Kalypso Nikolaidis “Europe’s Ends” o EuroSphere  Exclusive, something about Europeanness characteristics about being European, free market, social welfare  Think of Europe as a concept, freedom, inclusiveness, high value economy, unbounded territorially  Unbounded in relationship to each other, Europe and North Africa, Europe and the Med  EuroPole: link across the Pole, why not include Canada o EuroWorld  Including all kinds of people in an unbounded space  Marker in the world for those things : human rights, etc.  World in which European values are ▯ ▯ WEEK 3: Historical Geographies of Europe ▯ 01/23: Which Europe? Whose Europe? ▯ ▯ ▯ 01/27: The legacies of other Europes: Overlapping Empires ▯ ▯ ▯ 01/29: The legacies of other Europes: Empires and Cities ▯ ▯ ▯ WEEK 4: Capitalism, Industrialization, and Core/Periphery Geographies 02/01: Industrialization and the Geographies of Regional Uneven Development 02/03: Coal, Cores and Peripheries 02/05: Industrial Regions and their Social Geographies: UK, Italy, Germany WEEK 5: Fascism, Democracy and Communism in Europe 02/08: The Landscapes of the Great Wars 02/10: Post-War Parliamentary and People’s Democracies 02/12: Cold War Memory and the Political Lives of Dead Bodies WEEK 6: Social, Urban, and Regional Geographies of the Cold War 02/15: Cold War Student Presentations 02/17: 02/19: ▯ WEEK 7: The EU ▯ 02/22: Political Europe: Intro to the EU and Geopolitical Integration ▯ ▯ ▯ 02/24: The New Europe? ▯ ▯ 02/26: Data Workshop: An Intro to EU Data Sources WEEK 8: EU, EU Enlargement, and Regional Integration 02/29: Social Cohesion Policies 03/02: Which Union? Federalism, BREXIT, and the Referendum 03/04: EU Enlargement, Trade Integration and the Golden Belts of Post- Socialist Europe WEEK 9: The integration of Post-Socialist Europe 03/07: 1989 and al that…. 03/09: Documentary: Prehodi… everyday lives after communism 03/11: MIDTERM WEEK 11: Urban Europe and the Entrepreneurial city 03/21: The Urbanization of Europe 03/23: The Neoliberal City, Entrepreneurial Cities, and Mega-events: Student- led Roundtable on the European City: London, Barcelona, Rome 03/25: Technologies, Environments, and Future Forms of Living ▯ WEEK 12: War, Ethic Cleansing, and Genocide in Europe ▯ 03/28: Balkan Wars 1 ▯ ▯ ▯ 03/30: Balkan Wars 2 ▯ ▯ ▯ 04/01: Geopolitics of the EU, Ukraine and Contemporary Post-Soviet Russia ▯ ▯ ▯ WEEK 13: Demography, Population, and Immigrant Europe ▯ 04/04: Europe’s Population 1: Demography and Population Pyramids ▯ ▯ 04/06: Europe’s Population 2: The Consequences of the Aging of the Population ▯ ▯ ▯ 04/08: Europe’s Population 3: Immigration and Contemporary Cultural Politics ▯ ▯ ▯ WEEK 14: Migration and Postcolonial Europe ▯ 04/11: Borders, Dententions, Immigrations ▯ ▯ 04/13: From “Fortress Europe” to Detention Centers and Externalization ▯ ▯ 04/15: The Dublin Agreement on Asylum and ‘Manifesto Migration’ ▯ ▯ ▯ WEEK 15: Financial Crisis, Austerity Politics, and the Eurozone ▯ 04/18: Crisis in the Eurozone ▯ ▯ 04/20: Austerity and Regional Divisions: the case of GREXIT ▯ ▯ ▯ 04/22: The Rise of Precarious Livelihood in Southern Europe ▯ ▯ ▯ WEEK 16: The Future of Europe? ▯ 04/25: Whither Europe? ▯ ▯ 04/27: Discussion and Reviews


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