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Introduction to the Modern World

by: tori_wren

Introduction to the Modern World 2351

Marketplace > University of Houston > Architecture > 2351 > Introduction to the Modern World
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These are notes from recording Architecture Lecture 1
Survey of Arch History II
Nora Loas
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by tori_wren on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2351 at University of Houston taught by Nora Loas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Survey of Arch History II in Architecture at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Monday, January 25, 2016 Introduction to the Modern World Architecture Lecture Notes 1 - Social, Political, Scientific, and Industrial developments occur in the 18th century Religious developments are not completely rejected, but it takes a “back seat” to • other developments • All of these developments are based on questioning on authoritative systems of belief (established belief systems) or certain hierarchies (social class) or certain established methods - Historicism and Modernism • 18th and early 19th century philosophical questions • Should architects rely or reject the authority of the past? • What do we borrow, how much do we borrow, how would we borrow? • “Can we create anything new at all?” - Can you make something new, or has everything already been done? - Are we manipulating something that already exists? Enlightenment Movement / Enlightenment Institution - A revolution of the intellect, the mind - It was already presaged: it originated in the Renaissance that was introduced with humanism • Humanism: a radical concept of the spiritual and intellectual autonomy of the individual (freedom of the individual) • The Enlightenment was different because it was characterized by the power of reason (to help explain and understand the natural world) - Enlightenment was based on the ability of humans to reason and explain the natural world 1 Monday, January 25, 2016 - 16th Century • Copernicus (Polish astronomer) - He made a very important hypothesis that it wasn’t the Earth that was the center of the universe, but he made a heliocentric (the sun was the center of the universe) - (17th Century) This was proven by the Italian, Galileo, but the catholic church does not accept his hypothesis, so he is condemned and exiled for his ideas - Isaac Newton formulates the three laws of motion and the law of gravity Human reason is used to explain nature (not religion or belief) • - It was also used to explain the nature of human beings - 18th century: John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau • John Locke - Tabula Rasa: the blank slate • Each person is born innocent and that human experience forms each person’s character and ability • With your experiences, you are able to reason • Everybody is born equal, we all get an equal chance at birth - Your bloodline is no longer important - Direct attack to hierarchy • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Prehistoric man has been noble, pure by nature - Civilization has enslaved and corrupted human beings • Marc-Antoine Laugier - Essay on Architecture - “Primitive Hut Theory” - Proposed that we should look back to the origins of civilization for the ultimate source of architecture • Look back to nature 2 Monday, January 25, 2016 • Going back to the primitive man - Mother nature holds charge of architecture • She holds a compass and a square • She is sitting on broken classical components - She’s sitting on a classical capital, fragments of buildings, classical elements • She points to nature, telling the boy to look to nature as the origin of architecture - What is important is the authority of the ancients and the rules that they establish - Ancient Architecture • It isn't rejected, but the rules, the way architecture is built, and the authorities of ancient architecture is undermined by those in the 18th and 19th centuries • Humanity as potentially innocent and rational human beings - These people can conquer anything by rationalizing society, its institutions, and ultimately its architecture • Ancient authority is overturned over time - Enlightenment • A revolution that enlightened humanity • This is also the period of the most important modern political revolution in Europe • The French Revolution (1789) and the American Revolution couldn't have ever happened without these questioning of people’s authority and rights • These ideas were expressed in a multivolume encyclopedia in France between 1751 and 1780 - Everything was illustrated in a very systematic form 3 Monday, January 25, 2016 - Parallel to the Enlightenment was Romanticism • It stressed individual feelings, imagination, and an emotional response to something (the sublime) • Edmund Burke - Essay on the Sublime and the Beautiful - 1756 • He introduced the idea of sublime - something more powerful than beauty • Beauty has already been debated and is still being debated today - Everyone has a different idea to the idea of beauty / there is no definite answer - Sublime: a quality that evokes feelings of awe from something impressive and moving • Very often in front of the amazing character of nature • At times, sublime is expressed in scale • Evokes feelings of danger and power • It involves something subjective with aesthetics • The principle effect of sublime is terror - When your heart freezes - Not real terror or traumatic terror, but a controlled terror (like on a rollercoaster) • Caspar David Friedrich - Landscape German painter - “Wanderer above the Sea of Fog” - 1818 • In the 18th century into the 19th century - It was believe that architecture can express the sublime - Gothic architecture achieves this feeling • (Particularly in England) It’s mysterious because of its irregular outlines, relatively dark interior, and the scales of the enormity of space 4 Monday, January 25, 2016 - During the Renaissance era, Medieval architecture was pushed aside, rejected • It was associated with melancholy, sadness, sometimes with death • Cathedral of Paris: setting for Notre-Dame • Piranesi, Carceri d’Invenzione (Prisons of the imagination / Prisons of invention) - 1745 - Underground caverns, where lit areas are contrasted with dark areas (works from complete white in the engraving to complete black, and every shade in between), there are all kinds of criss-crossing staircases, balconies, and bridges - There’s no single focus, there’s no single one-point perspective, there’s no perceived entrance or no perceived exit - There are no classical orders, there’s no spacial or architectural focus - “Out of fear, pleasure springs.” - He creates a kind of destabilized world - There is a rejection of the Renaissance (cultural stability), Brunelleschi, Borromini, and the Baroque • Instead of a bunch of “squiggly lines” and decorative character, there is something new • It represents a search for something new. He’s looking beyond the past for some kind of new expression of space and architecture - How do architects in the 18th and 19h century respond to the past? • Historicism: All historical styles are valid and available to be used in architectural design to satisfy an infinite of moods, tastes, and needs - It becomes a style in itself • Modernism: In constant need of new forms, style, architecture - New ideas bring up new styles / architecture • Piranesi, Vedute di Roma (Views of Rome) 1748-1778 5 Monday, January 25, 2016 - (Starting in the 18th century) Systematically studying, scientifically, and systematic measure architecture • Archeology: born in the 18th century - The event that spurs this on is the rediscovery of Pompeii • This is important because these civilizations belonged to a different time period from the 18th century • Architects in the 18th century said that “We don’t have to build like they did. We don’t have to follow those rules” There’s a psychological separation from the past • • There’s a dilemma with the discovery of the past - Which style had more merit? Which was better? - Neo-Classicism (New Classicism) • Looking to the past, but manipulates the past • Ledoux - Interested on how architecture speaks to you • Soane - Has a very personalized style • Nash (historical eclecticism) - Looks outside his nation for architecture (like India) - The ultimate challenge to historicism comes the Industrial Revolution It altered the way people lived • • In place of animal and human powered, we get the steam engined - Architects use machine made material, often by stone (iron being used, but hidden in the interior) • It brings the assembly line - Ingenders prefabrication 6 Monday, January 25, 2016 - Revolutionized on how people build • Library of Ste. Genevieve, arch. Henri Labrouste, 1843-1850 - It looks pretty conventional externally - The architecture model is the Italian Palace building type • Florence, Palazzo Mdici, 1460 7


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