Psychology 100: Week 1 notes (1/25, 1/27/ 1/29)
Psychology 100: Week 1 notes (1/25, 1/27/ 1/29) BIO 151-001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan McGillick on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 151-001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Kelly L. Murray/ Kelly Jo Wright in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Biology of Humans in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Week 1 (1/25, 1/27, 1/29) Memory & Attention – ch 9 (this image I got from google, but the better image is on D2L) What to know: the brain= it’s the processor of information Its all about knowing: -What are the core assumptions of the info-process? -What is the sensory, short term, and long term memory? -How the use of attention plays in to the process of in taking information? I. Core Assumptions of info-process: 1. Every individual has only so much energy, time, and sometimes only so much storage space 2. Information can only move through that abstract model (above) a. Sensory->manipulated to long or short term->can be retrieved back II. 3 characteristics of each memory-storage-box: (each unique to each storage) a. function b. capacity c. duration III. The 3 stages of memory: Encoding, Storage(Attention), and Retrieval a. Each of these settings of the control process governs the processing of information b. Between short term and long term, the methods of encoding, storage, and retrieval c. Info must go through short term before it gets to long term What are the main components of the information processing model of the mind?? (1) Sensor Memory: Information that is taken in by all of the senses. (hearing and sight being the strongest). a. While there is only “sensory memory box” (in the diagram) there is Sensory memory for each sense (sight, sound, speech, taste, smell) b. This info is held in it’s original form c. Info is process by the electrical impulses from our body’s nervous system d. Large capacity, but very short duration i. Our Sensory Memory is always on and going, but sometimes our attention isn’t focused on every single sense that is being processed Ex: Say your friend is talking to you, you start by paying attention to them, then slowly drift off. You are still aware that they are talking (you can hear them), but you are not really listening to them. Then you follow up with, “wait what did you say, I wasn’t listening….” What is the function of your sensory memory? What is its duration and capacity? e. Most of this info is taken in automatically, not consciously i. Info is held in the stimuli for a short time and then it is kept or not (2) Short Term Memory: Conscious perception and thought-even in situations where info is only remembered/is active in the conscious briefly, memory involves the 3 stages of encoding, storage/attention, and retrieval. a. It is what we are consciously think about at a given moment b. AKA “working memory”- a main and major working space where all info passes through c. All about storing and transferring info i. Encoding- depends very much on attention-whether attention was paid to the original stimulus in order for it to be encoded and progress into the working memory 1. Either Phonological coding—representing info in short term by sounds a. Ex: repeating a phone number over and over again 2. Visual coding- storing an image in the short term although this type of memory if often poor (most people will verbalize what they see in order to better remember) ii. Storage- capacity is almost always 7 items plus or minus 2, most adults can remember a list between 5 to 9 things. 1. Small capacity and short duration- few things can be perceived at once 2. Lots of info transferred- but little is really remembered iii. Retrieval- can get back info from long term -what is its duration and capacity? -what are the basic functions of the short term storage? How is it equated with “consciousness”? (3) Long Term Memory: most common storage uses of the memory a. Has almost an infinite use of capacity and a rather fast duration —though damage or brain disorders can prevent or slow the process b. It enables us to recall and recognize anything c. Info that is in the long term usually stays there for the duration of person’s life (partial from diseases like Alzheimer) i. Declarative long-term memory- concerns historical events and knowledge of the external World-Needs Conscious recall 1. Ex; remembering something that happened as a child ii. Procedural long term memory-concerns remembering how to use objects and moving out body. 1. Ex: learning to ride a bike. They say you never forget, and its true, you never do. d. When memory is stored it tend to clump up, stored like a library e. Memories are connected together in related subjects that are meaningful or relevant to each other What is its function, capacity, and duration? How would you describe the long term memory to someone else? (4) The Control Process: The Transportation systems In the information-processing model, what are the functions of attention/storage, encoding, and retrieval? (back to the first diagram, these 3 stages of processing represented by the arrows going to and from the different memory boxes) 1. Attention/Storage: process of controlling the flow of into from sensory store into short term a. Sensory memory (large capacity) -> Short term stmall capndity) i. Attention restricts the flow from the 1 to the 2 2. Encoding: controls movement from short to the long term a. Ex: memorizing a poem b. Most coding is not deliberate- some stuff is easier to remember than other things i. Ex: it is easier to remember a song than a long poem for a few reasons: the language in a song is more normal, and common, unlike a formal use of language used in a poem. Plus, more exposure to one thing allows remembering easier and automatically. 3. Retrieval: controls the flow of info from the long term into the short term. a. “remember” and “recalling” b. act deliberately or automatically c. can flow automatically into working store from long term -Why do we forget things (have trouble retrieving) memories/information? memories are there but so much other information can create “layers” of interference of retrieval d. Mental energy-all depends on your mental capacity ** e. In order to process info = depends on ones limited capacity** I. Effortless Processors-require mental resources for successful computation How it works: a. Available to consciousness b. Interfere with execution of other effortless processes c. Improve with practice d. Can be influenced by intelligence, motivation, and education (varying from one person to another) II. Automatic Processors: require little or non or short term memory store (limited capacity) How it works: a. Occurs without intention and conscious awareness b. Not to interfere with execution of other processes c. Not to improve with practice d. Not to be influenced by individual differences in intelligence, motivation, and education though there are everyday things that require a combination of effortless and automatic Ex: reading, driving (develop with practice = “automatic”) and decline with distractions but practicing is also done effortlessly Attention: chapter 9 -Things to know: 1. our attention focuses mental resources on the task at hand 2. attention allows us to monitor stimuli that are irrelevant to the task at hand—shifting attention any any danger possible Sensory memory= info is taken in, analyzed to determine its importance the “gate”: a system that allows or not for info to pass through tot short term and then again to long term. Passes though limited capacity I. Ability to Focus Attention: a. Selective Listening: ability to tune out other sound and focusing on one voice. b. Selective Viewing: basically controlling what we see; though we can see things by our peripheral vision-not needing to move our eyes II. Ability to Shift Attention: a. “Shifting attention depends on our capacity to listen, look backward in time, and hear or see stimuli that were recorded earlier in sensory memory”—text book Major Functions of sensory memory: keeping fleeting stimuli long enough to allow our brain time to turn attention on it. 1. Auditory Sensory Memory: “echoic memory” i. Sperling’s Experiment in text book ii.Aka “echo” in a cave is heard 2. Visual Sensory Memory: “Iconic memory” i. aka like an “icon”/ image- using you sight III. Attentional Capacity: a. short gate between sensory and short- but capacity can grow IV. Preattentive Processing and Attention: 3 conditions a. Sensory stimuli activate certain sensory areas of the brain i. The cerebral cortex whether it is conscious or not. b. Attention process temporarily sensitizes relevant neurons in sensory and perceptual areas i. Diminishing activity ii. Increases responsiveness to the stimuli that analyze Ex: when you are in downtown Chicago, lots of things happening at once: people, cars, sounds, smells. When you watch many moving things at once some neurons pay more attention to some things and are more responsive than the other neurons. c. Neural mechanisms in the anterior parts of the cortex for controlling your attention i. Areas in Fontal lobe, anterior portions of temporal and parietal lobes more active during shifts in attention. “Attention is the state when neural resources are shifted, for analyzing certain stimuli, and fewer resources analyze stimuli that-that is all chosen by the senses”
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