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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hiba Kouser on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 4700 at Clemson University taught by Michael J Childress in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Ecology in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
I. Behavioral Genetics A. Mendel’s Rule of Inheritance 1. Law of Segregation: alleles at the same locus will segregate into separate gametes 2. Law of Independent Assortment: alleles at different genetic loci will show independent assortment unless genetically linked 3. Gene: location on the DNA strand that codes for a particular trait 4. Allele: one form of the gene found on a single chromosome B. Few Genes 1. Honeybee brood care seems to show Mendelian inheritance a. Two traits: uncapping and removal behaviors keep the hive hygienic i. Uncapping Behavior (U) Dominant mutant U causes loss of behavior UU/Uu=nonhygenic; uu=hygenic ii. Removal Behavior ® Dominant mutant R causes loss of behavior RR & Rr= nonhygenic; rr=hygenic b. Females are diploid and carry two alleles for each behavior; males are haploid so they carry only one allele for each behavior c. Traits demonstrate independent assortment 2. Mutations at each gene locus cause the loss of this behavior C. Pleiotropic Genes (different effects) 1. Fruit fly courtship and mating a. Males sing to female b. If the female does not recognize the song, no mating will occur c. Mosaic flies (made of a mixture of male and female cells) helped to identify structures associated with song production d. Singing is controlled by a region in the thoracic ganglia 2. Only one small region of the period (per) gene is associated with song production a. Geneticists looked for differences in mutation of this gene to see whether mutants sang too fast, too slow, or not at all b. The region differs across different species and each species sings a slightly different song i. Simple mutations of this gene could lead to rapid speciation Is evidence that natural selection is not the only force driving speciation D. Transcriptomics 1. Honeybees undergo a drastic shift in behaviors during their ontogeny a. The question is what controls the shift: genes, environment, or both? i. Ex. Foragers bee ii. Typically bees begin to forage from the hive at Day 15 but an influence of the environment where there are not enough foragers may mean that they need to begin earlier than that. Demonstrates that there is an environmental influence and influence of genetic variation. iii. A difference between young nurse bees and old forager bees was a difference in the amount of mRNA for the per gene Where high levels of mRNA indicated that the per gene is unregulated and more activemay cause a change in behavior Demonstrates that environment can influence gene expression but it is not the only influence since the per gene was not the only gene involved in making the early transition to forager 2. How do behaviors develop? In this case, why do birds sing? a. Many different factors as to how a behavior is formed: i. Mechanisms Amount of light can influence how much mating occurs and therefore, how much a bird sings during this time During winter—melatonin is in high levels while testosterone is low during the shorter day times and no mating occurs (i.e. no singing) As the environment changes and the weather warms up and the days get longer, testosterone levels in males also rise causing an increase in singing (and mating) and a defense of terrirotires ii. Learninghow did the birds learn this behavior (learning through parental examples) iii. Adaptive significancemale birds sing in order to attract females (ex. Galapagos finches) iv. History how did this behavior develop throughout the phylogeny of the bird and where did this trait arise II. Hormones A. Categorizations: 1. Neurotransmitters (amino acids): octopamine, serotonin B. Peptide Hormones (proteins): FSH and LH C. Steroid Hormones (lipids): Testosterone and Estrogen D. Pheromones (are externally released and related to the physiology of others): Phenylacetic acid