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Intro to Linguistics, Week One

by: Hannah Levine

Intro to Linguistics, Week One LNGS 23200

Hannah Levine
GPA 3.887
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About this Document

Notes from Week One of Sergio Pedro's Introduction to Linguistics course
Introduction to Linguistics
Sergio M Pedro
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Levine on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LNGS 23200 at Ithaca College taught by Sergio M Pedro in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Ithaca College.

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Date Created: 01/31/16
WEEK ONE Introduction to Linguistics -Behaviorists define language as a collection of learned behaviors -Discussion: is a parrot saying “Polly wants a cracker” language or conditioning? Does it fit the behaviorist definition of language? Lexicon: word bank, essentially – the group of words you draw from (both individually and universally) Orthography: spelling Content word: a word with a semantic definition (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs) Function word: pronouns, prepositions, articles, conjunctions – required for use of a language but not really definable Open class: a class of words to which we can add new words (so, basically, content words) -Ours has the largest impact of any age group in this class Closed class: function words, basically; unlikely to have new additions Affix: meaning you attach to a word -Prefix: a morpheme added to the beginning of a word -Suffix: a morpheme added to the end of a word -Infix: a morpheme added in the middle of a word (i.e. un-freakin’-believable) -Circumfix: adds both (i.e. bedrunken) -In English, we primarily just use prefixes and suffixes; infixes, etc. more common in other languages Arbitrariness of Form and Meaning refers to the sounds in a word; there is little to no relationship between form and meaning, except in onomotopeia, because most words are just a collection of arbitrary sounds Grammar Review -Nouns do things (subject [S] or object [O]) -Verbs are actions (V) -Adjectives describe nouns -Adverbs describe verbs, define adjectives (i.e. “super cool”), or define other adverbs (i.e. “less effectively”) Morphology: the study of the meaning of words Morphemes are the pieces of words you add (i.e., “s,” “-ed,” etc.); building units of words -Some can exist on their own: free morphemes (i.e. “shoe”) -Others exist only within words: bound morphemes (i.e. “-ish”) Derivational morphemes change the class and/or meaning of a word -i.e. boy  boyish, do  undo -v.  n. (bake  baker); n.  v.; n.  n. (commune  community); n.  adj.; adj.  v. (sad  sadden); v.  adj. (freeze  freezing) Derivational morphology: i.e. BEFRIEND SHOELACES v. n. v. n. n. s be friend shoe n. lace


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