COMM 415 Nonverbal Notes 1/26 & 1/28
COMM 415 Nonverbal Notes 1/26 & 1/28 COMM 415
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Cracchiolo on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 415 at University of Arizona taught by Chris Segrin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Nonverbal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
1/26 Why do we use gesture? • When comm is difficult or impossible (inside a burning house- firefighter needs to communicate with others) • To substitute for speech when speech might be regarded as too explicit or delicate- gestures are rarely challenged • When the spoken utterance, taken by itself, is incomplete o “I need this group over here to move over there” (while pointing) *wouldn't make sense w/o pointing motion • to add an additional component to the utterance that is not represented by the words Speech and gesture • body movements tend to bunch up at the beginning of phonetic clauses- basic elements of speech • there are fewer body movements during fluent phonetic clauses • there are more body movements during dysfluent clauses • body movements occur at the beginning of clauses • gestures that occur at the beginning of clausess often carry info about the word choices Illustrators and Conditions • Face to face(illustrators increase) • Complicated(increase) • Familiar(decrease) Illustrators in face to face comm • Subjects described drawing of a skirt face to face or over the telephone o Face to face mostly gestures o Over phone- still uses gestures “It looks like a table” Gesture and Recall • 6-7 year old children • pirate game • interviewed 14-17 days later • some allowed to gesture, some instructed to gesture (“use your hands and body”), others could NOT gesture (“memory apron”- tells the kids it will help them remember) • children instructed to gesture provided more correction information than other 2 conditions • no gesture= least information • gesture reduces processing demands • offloading allows for more allocation to retrieval Grounding thoughts in Action • Tower of Hanoi task • Then described how they solved the problem • Researchers switched smallest disk so that it was too heavy to lift with one hand • Task performed again • The more the switch group’s gestured depicted moving the smallest disk one-handed, the worse they performed • When gestures are no longer compatible with the action constraints of task, problem solving suffers Gesture and Word Retrieval • Degraded images (airplane, microwave) • When viewing them, subjects make gestures that are congruent with the image (flat hand with airplane) • Or incongruent with the image (clenched fist with airplane) 1/28 Gesture and Computational Task Performance • Kids 7-10 yrs watched video taped math lessons • Speech only • Speech + gesture (sweeping motion one side of problem to other) • Kids did better with speech + gesture Decoding gestures • Emblems: very well shared; agreement between encoders and decoders • Illustrators: degree to which there is shared meaning is unclear (the more iconic they are the easier they are to understand) • Adaptors: the most difficult to decode; interpretation is probably idiosyncratic Interactive aspects of gesture • Interactive phenomena- behavior of one person has a reliable impact on another- when you make a stop sign with your hand and someone actually stops o Postural congruence- mimicking each other (subconsciously)(sitting on a park bench, each person has arm on bench with hand on face, babies, primates) Interactive Aspects of gesture and Body Movement • Postural congruence • Synchrony • Sensitivity to behavioral mimicry- sitting in movie theater and backing up during violent scene • Greater mimicry of in-groups (vs. outgroup) and liked (vs. disliked) actors o Mirror neurons-brain cells that respond equally when performing vs. Observing same action (eating pizza yourself vs. watching someone else eat pizza- neurons act the same) o First discovered in Monkeys- Neurons in brains of monkeys who grabbed object vs. observed another grabbing same object o Human documentation o Experience of disgust vs, observation of disgust o Touch on upper leg vs. observation of touch to upper leg o Empathy: “experience” through observation The Nature of Language • Simplify the original material- “dog” could mean Retriever, Chihuahua… “Home” could mean big house, small house, apartment, sorority house… • Organize so that relationship among elements is clear- syntax- set of rules on how to organize items. Ex: adverb before noun • Restructure the whole for easy transmission American Sign Language • 12 basic hand positions • 19 configurations • 24 movements • involves a lot of facial animation • loose syntax (organization) Indian Sign Language • 18 hand configurations • 24 movements • no facial expression • very loose syntax Discrete Behavior– more language like quality • Emblems • Kinesic markers • Eye contact • Smile • Nod • Head shake • Arms akimbo (arms on hips) • Leg position (open/closed) Continuous Behavior- less language like • Gesture that accompanies speech • Posture shifting • Forward/backward lean • Body orientation • Adaptors
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