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Bio 1010 Week 2 Notes

by: AJ Ponte

Bio 1010 Week 2 Notes BIO_SC 1010 - 01

AJ Ponte
GPA 3.94

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These notes cover unites 3 and 4, organic compounds and the origin of life.
General Principles and Concepts of Biology
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO_SC 1010 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Staff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see General Principles and Concepts of Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Week 2 Bio Lecture Notes Unit 3 Inorganic Organic Contain (+) and (-) ions Always contain carbon and hydrogen Usually ionic bonding Always covalent bonding Small number of atoms Large, many atoms Organic molecules  Carbon skeleton- a series of carbons bonded in a chain with hydrogen atoms  Functional group- a specific combination of bonded atoms that always react in the same way, regardless of the particular carbon skeleton Synthesis of organic molecules  Dehydration reaction- chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule o Results in the linkage of monomers into polymers o Monomer- single molecule  Hydrolysis reaction- chemical reaction that involves the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water o Results in the breaking of a polymer o Polymer- molecule composed of monomers Carbohydrates  “Carbs” are bio molecules consisting of simple sugars, double sugars and polysaccharides  Monomer: monosaccharides o Basic unit of carbohydrates form of sugar o Colorless, water soluble, crystalline solids, cannot be broken down into smaller sugars o Ex. glucose  Polymer: polysaccharides o Polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bond together  Functions: o Energy source o Energy storage:  Starch- a polymer of glucose, found in the root of plants  Glycogen- multi branched polysaccharide of glucose and energy storage molecule of animals and fungi o Structural components: Week 2 Bio Lecture Notes  Cellulose- consists of a linear chain of several hundred to several thousand glucose units  Forms a cell wall in green plants and algae  Chitin- glucose polymer found in the cell walls of fungi and in the exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans  Peptidoglycan- a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh- like layer forming the cell wall of most bacteria  Varieties: o Monosaccharides o Disaccharides o Polysaccharides  Disaccharide- formed when two monosaccharides undergo a condensation reaction o Ex. Sucrose (table sugar) Lipids  Lipids are a group of naturally occurring molecules that are hydrophobic and are NOT polymers  Monomer: glycerol/fatty acids  Polymer: fat  Functions: o Long-term energy storage o Plasma membrane component o Protection  Varieties: o Fats, lipids, oils, steroids and waxes  Fats consist of a glycerol molecule joined with three fatty acid molecules, this is a triglyceride o The major portion of a fat molecule is the long hydrocarbon chain which stores energy o Unsaturated fat- a fat in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain (less calories) o Saturated fat- have no double bonds between carbon atoms, chain of carbons is considered “saturated” (high calories) o Trans fat (hydrogenated oil)- a type of unsaturated fat which is uncommon in nature but is produced in the food industry because it allows food to have a longer shelf life  Responsible for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the U.S.  Phospholipids are a major component of all cell membranes, they form a liquid bilayer o Polar head and nonpolar tail Week 2 Bio Lecture Notes  Steroids are a group of cyclic organic compounds comprised of 17 carbon atoms in a 4 ring structure o Cholesterol is a common steroid that is an essential component of all animal cell membranes and the “base steroid” from which your body produces other steroids Proteins  A large biomolecule consisting of one or more long chains of amino acids and is the most intricate and diverse molecule  Monomer: amino acids o Amino acids are composed of anmine, a carboxylic acid, a hydrogen, and a functional group o All covalently bonded o There are 20 different common amino acids  Polymer: polypeptide  Protein shape: o Primary structure: unique sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain; dictates overall structure o Secondary structure- hydrogen bonding between amino acids from unique local patterns o Tertiary structure- overall 3-D shape of the polypeptide o Quaternary structure- proteins with two or more polypeptide chains bonded together  Major types of proteins: o Structural- provide support o Storage- provide amino acids for growth o Contractile- help movement o Transport- help transport substances o Enzymes- help chemical reactions Nucleic acids  Are large biomolecules that store information, provide structure and can act like an enzyme. They are essential to every living organism and each nucleotide is composed of three parts: phosphate group, sugar, and nitrogenous base  Monomer: nucleotides  Polymer: RNA /DNA  RNA- involved in coding, decoding, regulation and expressing genes as well as being a structural molecule and an enzyme  DNA- molecule that codes genetic instructions used in all living organisms and many viruses (storage place) Week 2 Bio Lecture Notes  ATP- is composed of adenine, ribose, and three phosphates o Known as the “molecular unit of currency” used in cells as a coenzyme for intracellular energy transfer Unit 4 Origin of life  Life originated on earth 3.5 to 4 billion years ago from nonliving matter  Life- living things metabolized, respond and interact with environment, self-replicate and evolve 4 stages to the origin of life 1. Synthesis of organic monomers 2. Synthesis of polymers 3. Synthesis of protocells 4. Abiogenesis Stage 1: synthesis of organic monomers  Chemical evolution-formation of complex organic molecules from simpler inorganic molecules through chemical reactions o Most likely occurred in earth’s oceans  Abiotic synthesis- formation of organic molecules from inorganic molecules  Three theories for chemical evolution o Primordial soup- proposes that early earth had very little atmospheric oxygen, but instead was made up of water, hydrogen, methane and ammonia  Miller-Urey experiment- chemical experiment that simulated early earth conditions and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions o Iron-sulfur world hypothesis-dissolved gases emitted from thermal vents pass over iron and nickel sulfide minerals which act as a catalyst that drives abiotic synthesis  Chemosynthesis- the use of energy released by chemical reactions to produce food (used by organisms that have no access to energy from the sun o Panspermia-theory that life on earth originated from microorganisms or chemical precursors of life present in outer space (carried by meteorites, asteroids, and comets  Evidence- Allan Hills 84001, chunk of Mars Stage 2: synthesis of organic polymers  Organic monomers were joined to form organic polymers Week 2 Bio Lecture Notes  RNA-world hypothesis- only the biomolecule RNA was needed to progress toward formation of the first cell(s) o RNA is self-replicating (DNA and protein are not) o RNA can act as an enzyme o RNA can store information and form structures Stage 3: synthesis of protocells  Organic polymers became enclosed in a membrane to form the first cell precursors  Protocells- a structure that is characterized by having an outer membrane o Phospholipids likely formed the first membranes  Membrane-first hypothesis- proposes that the plasma membrane was the first component of the early cells to evolve Stage 4: abiogenesis  Abiogenesis is the natural process of life arising from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds i.e. lipids, RNA, DNA and proteins  Geologic timescale- it took 21,000,000,000 years for life to form on earth  Large scale factors that influence the evolution of life: o Continental drift- movement of earth’s crust by plate tectonics resulting in the movement of continents  Plate tectonics- earth’s crust is fragmented into slab-like plates that float on a lower, hot mantel layer o Extinction events- mass extinction is the disappearance of a large number of species or higher taxonomic groups within an interval of just a few million years  Ordovician (443 mya)- continental drift  Devonian (359 mya)- meteor impact  Permian (251) mya)- global warming (90% of all life died)  Triassic (199 mya)- meteor impact  Cretaceous (65 mya)- meteor impact (end of dinosaurs)  Anthropocene (10,000 years to present)- human activity  Decline of all species by 25% over the past 500 years alone  Causes:  Overexploitation- killing animals for food, clothing, etc.  Habitat destruction  Global warming- number 1 contributor currently o Supervolcanoes  Case study- Toba supervolcano eruption  Occurred about 70,000 years ago  Largest known eruption on earth  Cause 6-10 year global winter plus a 1,000 year cooling Week 2 Bio Lecture Notes  Thought to be responsible for a bottleneck effect on the human species  Climate engineering- erupt a volcano to slowly stop global warming


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