UGC 111 Unit 1 Notes
UGC 111 Unit 1 Notes UGC 111
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mickey Notetaker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to UGC 111 at University at Buffalo taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Undergraduate Course in History at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Unit 1: Early Man 2015 年 8年 31年 21:38 1856 - "Neanderthals" Discovered in the Neander Valley of Germany 1859 - Charles Darwin proposes his theory of evolution Definition By 20th century, findings traced even earlier humans to Africa and Asia The Evolution of Man In additional to humans becoming more sophisticated creatures, what else were they doing? - human are using tool - developing culture - agriculture Out of Africa Earliest hominids lived on the African continent about 7 million years ago About 50000 years ago, humans migrated to other continents - What necessitated this movement? - The spread of humans led to the development of different culture. The Stone Age Explanation for the name? - is the name truly accurate? Most of the tools are made by stone. Two key phases of the Stone Age: - Paleolithic - "Old Stone Age", to 8000 B.C. - Neolithic - "New Stone Age", coincides with the development of agriculture. - Evolution of human species coincides with advancement and sophistication of various The Development of Tools Around 35000 years ago, tools and other implements began to be increasingly specialized to specific tasks - Also accommodated lifestyle focusing on both hunting and agriculture - Example: multipurpose tools like the hatch It takes a village… Social bonds - largely centered around familial ties and sexual relationships - encourage a communal atmosphere among early humans Division of responsibilities based largely on gender There communities were often limited and migratory Culture "Socially transmitted patterns of action and expression" - Includes material objects like dwellings, clothing, tools craft, etc. - Includes nonmaterial values, beliefs, and languages Cave Art Why is cave art such a valuable source for researches? - we learn how early man express themselves - show us how they lived Why aren't there other sources available for researches to study? - because they don't have language What can cave art tell us about these early human civilizations? - closes to written record What can't it tell us? - We don't know is they are telling story or express their thought. Why is it important? - Early people can't remember things for a long time because of their brain size, cave art helps them remember things. Agriculture Revolutions Between 8000-2000 B.C. Hunter - gatherer lifestyle gradually falls outs of favor - Explanations? Because it takes a lot energy to hunt and also hunter need to have stable sources Why might agriculture be preferred to hunting? Agriculture provide more security What are some side - effects of an agrarian-based society? - biggest impact? People settle, they have village and create their society What made this so revolutionary? 1 Shift to specialized agricultural tools and implements - Ex: stones polished to cut or used to pulverize grain 1 Crop Rotation (or "shifting cultivation") - What are the benefits such practice? Why is it necessary? keeping soil fresh, it's going to be there when you need them. 1 Domestication of vegetation - Crops grown specifically for high yields and nutritional output Ex. Rice 1 Domestication of animals - For farming use, personal companionship, and food source Problems with the Neolithic (communal) lifestyle Emphasis on staple crops led to poor diet and a lack of nutritional variety Explain? People can't get enough nutrition from the food they plant. Permanent settlements led to close proximity resulting in spread of disease Benefits of Neolithic (communal) lifestyle Agricultural output provided for surpluses during times of drought or crisis How would this be advantageous over hunting-gathering Can make circuits Will be able to stay and settle Development of larger communities in villages and eventually towns/cities - Leads to the development of differing trades, lifestyles, and professions, all working together as a community - What makes a village or town preferable to a nomadic lifestyle? It's safer than nomadic lifestyle. People can work together to provide food It's more stable Kinship (family) ties created common bonds that encouraged cooperation and common goals Includes the advancement of religious and other culture ideals - What are some common example of kinship that might have existed in these Neolithic communities? Family becomes more important in early people's minds People are more invective Planning for the next generation Culture Expression in the Neolithic Era Coinciding with increasingly sophisticated communities, religion and religious rituals also become more common Connections to nature - particularly those relating to food sources, agricultures, and hunting - were emphasized - Ex. "earth mother" or "mother goddess" (pictured at left) Ancestor-worship highlights importance of kinship ties - How do burial sites reflect the Neolithic shift towards permanent communities? Spiritual connection with our ancestor They care about people after the dead