Study guide of Historial people and events
Study guide of Historial people and events Educ 300-002
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aiyana Flowers on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Educ 300-002 at Winthrop University taught by Dr. glover in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Foundation of early childhood education in Education and Teacher Studies at Winthrop University.
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If Aiyana isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Name: Aiyana Flowers ECED 300 Chapter 2 Note Guide European contributors 1. John Amos Comenius has a book named “School of Infancy” and this book suggests that the first years of life are crucial to overall development and that adults must take advantage of this time to assist the child’s growth. He believed that movement and activity were sure signs of healthy learning experiences. “The goal for education is to seek and find a method by which the teachers teach less and the learners learn more, by which he schools have less noise, obstinacy, and frustrated endeavor, but more leisure, pleasantness.” Comenius advocates for an enjoyable educational experience and students who could take charge of their own learning. Wanted all boys and girls, bright and dull, rich and poor, to receive an education. Everyone should receive education. Movement and activities are a part of the healthy learning experiences. Essentials that matched with him were Guide Social and Emotional Development and Understanding Children and their development. Education was deserved by boys and girls, rich, and the poor. What did he believe about the first years of life… crucial 2. Jean Jacques Rousseau Rousseau’s educational writings have had a significant influence on the direction of early childhood theory and practice. Emile is his best-known book, which describes the ideal early education of the imaginary child. He advocates educational experiences that were very different from what children of his day were receiving. Some things he proposed were Negative Education- formal educational experiences should be postponed until children are 12 years old, Learning from Nature- NO BOOKS; only could learn all they needed to know from the natural world, Education should focus on sensory experiences- the building blocks of early learning need to be touching tasting and experiencing new sights and sounds, Children need to choose their learning experiences- leave them alone to their own devices, children would select best tasks for developmental progress, and Childhood is a stage in development- Rousseau was the first to make the claim; children can be distinguished from adults than just size, they think, reason and require differently. “flower grows with water and good soil, young children often do well when adults prepare a quality environment for learning, then step back and watch for the results. The name of his most influential work on Education- Emilie. He believed children should be soley influenced by nature 3. Johann Pestalozzi An early childhood practitioner, who was inspired by Rousseau. His educational root started at an orphanage. Pestalozzi’s methods and theories comes from the writings of others. He is described as a good teacher who made every effort to love and care for his students while educating them. His modeling included Careful observation of children- observed and used what you saw to plan learning experiences for them, Recognizing the potential in each child- in the right circumstance seeing every child as having the ability to learn; always believe in them even when other do not, Importance of teacher-student relationships- before children could learn they need to have a strong relationship with their teacher; once confidence and affection is 1 reached then learning is a simpler process, Strengthening peer relations- promoted older children to tutor younger students and good relations among the students, and Sensory learning- recognized the importance of learning experiences that took advantage of young children’s natural interest in using their senses. Essential- Guide Social and Emotional development. Key terms of Pestalozzi, practitioner, observer, giver of potential, role model. Began his career in Stanz, Switzerland. Inspired by Rousseau. 4. Friedrich Froebel Wanted to remake all of education. Named the program (working with 5-year-old) he developed for the age group the kindergarten (children’s garden in German). Referred to the father of modern kindergarten. Wrote 2 books named Education of Man- describes his teaching materials and techniques and Mother-Play and Nursery Songs- emphasizes the role of mothers in the young child’s development. One important concept was his emphasis on the benefits of childhood play. Froebel mentions play “holds the sources of all that is good.” The book emphasized the value of singing at home and in school as a pleasant and effective way to learn. Froebel was fascinated with the number of times children would hold hands and make a circle. So this natural tendency is now what we call circle time. Recognized that seating children in a circle for group experiences brought them together in a setting that was easy to manage while creating a more personal atmosphere that helped improve interactions and instructions. Hence, why in classrooms they have the circle mats. Essential- guide social and emotional development- circle time; Work with parents, families, and the community- emphasis on mothers and singing; Provide opportunities to play- kindergarten. Froebel focused on 5 year olds, he wrote Mother-Play and Nursery Songs. 5. Maria Montessori The first female physician in Italy. First educational interest was mental retardation. She took up the cause of young children whom the rest of society had rejected. Her reputation grew when she prepared the “idiot” children to successfully pass examinations for primary certificates. Her well known educational program opened in 1907, called Casa dei Bambini (Children’s House). 6. Margaret McMillan Concerned about health problems of children growing up in low-income areas. Her and her sister founded the Open Air Nursery. The Nursery was designed for ages 1 to 6 years and the nursery emphasized outdoor play. With the outdoor play, the nursery provided baths, clean clothes, healthy meals, medical and dental care, and opportunities for learning experiences. Open Air Nursery is an early model for the current Head Start. McMillian emphasized concepts like Facilitating emotional development- young children need more than physical health and intellectual stimulation to develop normally; Teachers need to address that the emotional well- being is equally important, Parent involvement- having monthly parent meetings, home visits, support for families during crisis, and Children’s art- children’s drawing and artworks are important for the overall development and make sure they are encouraged. Help carry out the first medical examination of elementary school children in Bradford with Dr. James Kerr. Advocate for Universal Suffrage. “the best classroom and the richest cupboard is roofed only by the sky.” Stressed the importance of involvement in the child’s iife outside of school. Physical Health-outdoor play. Emotional well-being- considered it equally important and necessary to be 2 addressed by teachers. Essential- Understanding children and their development. Main goal- Health problems of low income children, physical development, and the importance of play and being outdoors. Name of the nursery with her sister- Open Air. 7. Lev Vygotsky Russian scholar who started his study of developmental psychology and education. Three important concepts influenced early care and education stuck after his death. One is the zone of proximal development, which is the gap between the child’s independent performance of a task and that which he can perform with the help of a more skilled peer or adult. Next, is Vygotsky thought the relationships between language and thought in childhood have also influenced teaching and language learning in the early years. Last is the value of play in the development of symbolic thinking and the overall growth of children. Development (LEV) Essential that align with Vygotsky would have to be understand children and their development and providing opportunity to play. Gap-zone of proximal development. 8. Sigmund Freud Studies began with the human personality and emotional development. Created a complex theory referred to as psychoanalysis. Freud believed that personality was strongly influenced by the ways in which children learned to expend what he called sexual energy from one stage to the next. Freud has 5 major stages that children pass to develop their personalities. The first stage is Oral Stage (0-1)- the mouth is the location of satisfying or frustrating experiences. Exploring objects by sucking on them and nursing are examples of a positive release. The second stage is Anal Stage (1-3)- when the child receives pleasure from eliminating the bowels and bladder as needed. The third stage is Phallic stage (3-5)- the child’s genitals are important objects of pleasure, children want to touch themselves, even though when parents try to avoid the behavior. The fourth stage is Latency stage (5-11)- genitals remain the focus of sexual energy, children want suppress their wants, so they tend to work and play with others of the same sex partly to control their sexual energies. The final stage is Genital (11+)- reached at puberty. Sexual energy remains on genital, means of satisfaction now becomes sexual orgasm. Young people interested in others of the opposite sex. 9. Jean Piaget Published his theories concerning intellectual development which was later called constructivist learning because it suggests that individuals actively construct knowledge on an ongoing basis. In order words we are constantly receiving new information and engaging in experiences that lead us to our own understanding of the world. In a constructivist learning environment, the child creates rather than receiving knowledge and the teacher guides or facilitates this process of discovery. Children learn a lot without being taught. They are able to understand, communicate, move, and function in the world around them because of interacting with their environment. A few characteristics of constructive learning environment are learning is a social and collaborative endeavor rather than a solitary activity, activities are learner-centered rather than teacher-centered, activities are often cross-disciplinary, encouraging students to make connections and integrate information, topics for inquiry are driven by students’ interests rather than a fixed curriculum, emphasis on understanding and application rather than memorization or copying, and assessment is through authentic measures rather than traditional or standardized testing. The best component of his research was a definition of stages of intellectual development. 3 American contributors 1. John Dewey Progressive Movement- emphasized active learning and the importance of social interactions in teaching and learning. Some of the major ideas of Mr. Dewey is that Education should be integrated with life, education should preserve social values, true education occurs in social situations, children’s instincts and powers create starting points for education, active learning is essential. Essential that goes with Dewey Understand Children and Their Development 2. Erik Erikson He worked to extend and refine psychoanalytic theory of personality development. Erikson three main additions were emphasis on the healthy personality, the epigenetic principle- growth in personality is determined by genetics, and psychosocial stages of development- 8 stages in the development of the personality, a child’s upbringing builds up on the stages. Infant, toddler, preschooler, grade-schooler, teenager, young adult, middle-age Adult, older adult (increases in complexity). Essential is Understand Children and Their development. Worked to extend and refine the psychoanalytic theory of personality development. 3. Abraham Maslow A key advocate of what is called humanistic psychology. Humanistic proposes an optimistic picture of children which emphasizes traits such as the basic “goodness” of the child, human needs, the importance of self. One major contribution to humanistic theory was the development of a hierarchy of needs. Basic needs such as food, shelter, and clothing must be satisfied before higher-level needs such as belongingness and affection can be met. 4. Abigail Elliot Important contributions to early care and education through her work with nursery school children from low-income families. Director of Ruggles Street Nursery, which the nursery was another early model for the current Head Start program. The nursery had characteristics like child-sized equipment, comprehensive program (health care), variety of materials, full-day program (nap), work with parents. Essential is Understanding children and their development- focused on helping children grow from being an infant to being a toddler and preparing them for the learning environment, focused on the child rather than the teacher, what their needs were. Created a nursery for Low income families, Eliot did not introduce into the classroom was Nursery Rhymes 5. Louise Derman Sparks Published Anti-Based Curriculum: Tools for Empowering Young Children (1989). It presents ground-breaking ideas about how young children, with assistance of their caregivers and teachers, can learn to overcome the biases they will face in their homes, extended families, and communities. She helped develop what came to be known as the High/Scope program (examines the lives of children born in poverty and as a high rick of failing in school.) Essential- working with parents, families and communities because she says that with the help of caregivers, and teachers children can overcome the biases they will face all around. She wrote Anti-Biased Curriculum: Tools for Empowering young children. She taught at Perry Preschool Project 6. Howard Gardener 4 S IGNIFICANTEVENTS INFLUENCING EARLY C HILDHOOD EDUCATION A. Child Study Movement People began to recognize that differences existed between children and adults, they were forced to investigate, hence the Child Study Movement was born. The interest in studying children generated a great deal of very useful child development information. Was an important catalyst in the growth of laboratory nursery schools. B. The Great Depression Major federal efforts to put people back to work ended up promoting the cause of prekindergarten education. Work Progress Administration (WPA) took unemployed schoolteachers, custodians, cooks and nurses and gave them jobs in government- sponsored preschools programs. Main benefit was that nursery education became more widely recognized, which led to acceptance by the American public. C. World War II The government and industry wanted parents and young children to work, which took away child care at home. So federal money gave temporary child care place. Well-known child-care program implemented a specially designed building and it was located at the work site, mothers could nurse during break times. The center was open 24 hrs. to accommodate workers. Special Attendance times. Infirmary for sick children- parents reassured that children were taking good care of. Family consultant- assisted parents in finding needed community resources. Home food service- parents use the child-care food service to order a hot meal to take it home. Once the wars end, the building closed and women went back to their traditional roles as homemakers. D. The Launching of Sputnik Many people thought a better job of educating children so that American scientist could catch up with Russian counterparts. Sputnuk is a lesson to make the next American scientists to advance ahead of Russia. Early years are recognized as an important developmental period that needed to be taken advantage of and carefully studied. It increased public support for early education. But it came with a few problems. Overemphasis on intellectual performance, and the launch was the demand for quick and lasting results. E. The War on Poverty Was the provision of national monies to fund early childhood programs designed for young children for disadvantaged backgrounds. Policy makers believed that the only way the cycle of poverty can be broken only by providing quality educational experiences for children from low-income families. Well-known program that came out of this period was Head Start. But Head Start showed a minimal initial success in improving children’s intelligence scores, and the fain that were made eventually washed out of the children’s mind once reached third grade. Project Follow Through was federally funded program that continues assistance to children from low- income families in the primary grades. These programs help create a stronger link between preschool and primary education. F. No Child Left Behind Act 5 “The purpose of this title (act) is to ensure that all children have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high-quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency on challenging state academic achievement standards and state academic assessments.” Three provisions of this act are 1) renewed efforts are being made to ensure that all children can read. 2) intended to strengthen teacher quality by requiring states to put a highly qualified teacher in every classroom. Which are required teachers to have a completed bachelor’s degrees in early care and education. 3) strongly promoting English competence for limited-English- proficient (LEP) students. 6
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