Human Growth and Development Quiz One Notes
Human Growth and Development Quiz One Notes NURS 1430
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aliyah Becker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NURS 1430 at Saint Louis University taught by Dr. Nina Westhus and Janice Palmer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Human Growth and Development in Nursing and Health Sciences at Saint Louis University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Overview Theories of Personality Growth Increase in body size or changes in o Structure o Function o Complexity of body cell content, metabolic and biochemical processes up to some point of optimum maturity Development Age related changes that are orderly, cumulative, and directional Patterned Orderly Lifelong changes in o Structure o Thought o Feelings of behavior Theory An organized set of ideas about how things operate; an attempt to explain past findings and predict future ones Learning Theory Development results from learning Longlasting change in behavior based on experience or from adaptation to the environment Two Learning Theories 1. Behaviorism a. Learning theory that emphasizes the predictable role of environment in causing observable behavior 2. Social Learning Theory Associative Learning Learning that certain stimuli or events tend to go together or to be associated with one another o Mental link formed between two elements in the environment Way in which infants learn that certain events tend to go together – be associated Two Types of Associative Learning 1. Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) a. A learning process in which a new stimulus comes to elicit an established reflex response through association with an old stimulus b. Dogs – salivate – when given food and at same time rang bell c. Dogs – salivate – when hear bell 2. Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning (Skinner) a. Learning based on association of behavior with its consequences Skinner Reinforcement An event following a behavior that increases the likelihood the behavior will be repeated Skinner Punishment The process by which a behavior is weakened, decreasing the likelihood of repetition Skinner Sucking rates of 3 day old infants Half of infants o Interval of sucking longer reinforced by moms voice = sucking rate decreases o Interval of sucking shorter reinforced by moms voice = sucking rate increases Social Learning Theory Theory that emphasizes the learning of behaviors through associations with different kinds of consequences, especially in a social context Many psychologists developed Most influential = Albert Bandura A great deal of learning that comes about through observation of others See development as a gradual, cumulative process Focus is on social behavior rather than thinking Interested in explaining differences among children of the same age rather than differences among children different ages Social Learning Theory: Bandura Children tend to repeat behaviors that: o Have resulted in rewards or o Have allowed them to avoid unpleasant consequences Children tend to discontinue behaviors that: o Do not have one of these two outcomes Social Learning Theory: Modeling Learning by imitating others’ behavior, especially behavior that has been observed to have positive consequences Piaget Swiss developmental psychologist Formulated first comprehensive theory of cognitive development Normative cognitive development; changes in thinking that occur with age among all typically developing children Development of children’s logical reasoning abilities As children grow older o Undergo major qualitative changes in how they understand and learn Older children o Do not just have more skills and information o Thinking is organized in fundamentally different ways Theory / Comparison Darwin o Proposed biological adaptation emergence of new species Piaget o Proposed cognitive adaptation to the environment over the course of development emergence of new kinds of thinking Piaget Children develop cognitively by actively constructing a system for understanding the world rather than passively acquiring new facts Children’s understanding of the world at any given stage is limited by their current cognitive structures As they pass through various stages of development, their cognitive structures become increasingly abstract and sophisticated Piaget: Three Interrelated Concepts 1. Organization a. Schemes 2. Adaptation a. Assimilation b. Accommodation 3. Equilibrium Major Shifts in Thinking Occurs at 2, 7, and 12 years of age Sensorimotor Period Birth – 2 years Infants understand the world through sensory information and motor response Preoperational Period 2 – 6 years Children use mental representation to reason about the world, but thinking is not yet logical Can think about things not physically present but reasoning is not yet logical or systematic Concrete Operational Period 7 – 11 years Children can perform logical operations to reason about concrete objects Formal Operations 12 year + Children can logically think about abstract issues and hypothetical situations Piaget Go through same major periods of development In same order At about same age Cannot be greatly accelerated through training InformationProcessing Theory / Cognitive Development Theory that seeks to explain human thought processes by comparing them to the workings of a computer Person receives input (information from environment) and processes it, drawing on information already stored in memory InformationProcessing Theory Not a product of a single theorist See development in terms of quantitative change Gradual improvements in attention, memory, and thinking that leads to greater skill in interpreting events and wider range of problem solving strategies Analyze steps children take in performing a mental task Chart and explain cognitive changes that occur with age Interested in universal patterns of development Sociocultural Theory / Cognitive Development Study children’s cognitive development in its social and cultural context A theory that emphasizes the role of social interaction and specific cultural practice in the development of cognitive skills Sociocultural Theorist Lev Vygotsky o Russian psychologist o Children first learn cognitive skills in social settings and only later internalize them o Cognitive development can be understood only by studying the social and cultural processes in which it originates Vygotsky Children learn to play and to regulate their own behavior by gradually internalizing directives that they originally hear in social interaction with adults Sociocultural Theorist: Vygotsky Private speech o Audible speech that children direct to themselves in regulating their own behavior Vygotsky 1. Private speech 2. Inner speech a. Children’s inaudible directives to themselves, used for behavior regulation 3. Zone of proximal development a. Vygotsky’s term for the gap between a particular child’s current performance and potential performance with guidance from someone more skilled b. Where learning and cognitive development occur, as children gradually internalize skills they could initially do only in a social setting Vygotsky’s Followers Scaffolding o Temporary support that parents, teachers, or others give a child in doing a task until the child can do it alone Psychoanalytic Theory An organized set of ideas about how things operate; an attempt to explain past findings and predict future ones Sigmund Freud Viennese physician Any theory of development derived from the idea of Freud Treated emotionally disturbed patients o Concluded abnormal behavior results from inadequate expression of innate drives – intense urges based in human biology (need for sex, expression of aggression) Psychoanalytic Theory: Freud Attempt to describe o Normative social and emotional development o Explain individual development pathways and variations from norm Three hypothetical parts of the personality o Id o Ego o Superego Id Birth Part of the mind that consists of primitive drives and instincts Pleasure principle – seek immediate satisfaction Ego Emerges over first few years of life Able to delay gratification Term for the self The part of the mind Role: to find safe and appropriate ways to express instinctual drives Child develops the ability o To delay gratification of impulses To meet society’s demands, particularly demands conveyed by parents At first, done from fear of punishment Superego Then – develops in late preschool years (5 or 6) The conscience o Part of the mind that ha internalized rules and values governing behavior Child has made the parent’ rules and values part of the self He or she feels guilty for misbehavior and tries to be good even when adults are not around Individual Personality Development: Freud Five Stages (Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital) Gratify drive for sensual pleasure in a particular part of the body Same order, similar ages Adult personality is result of how much gratification of drives is restricted (over gratification/under gratification leads to anxiety and fixation) Fixation Failure to resolve the major issues of a psychosexual stage, resulting in repeated symbolic reliving of those issues Interpersonal Theory: Sullivan Relationships between and among people Experiences in major life events are results of o Positive interpersonal relationships o Negative interpersonal relationships Personality Development Result of o Motherchild relationship o Childhood experiences o Interpersonal encounters However, development continues into adulthood Two Basic Needs Interrelated o Satisfaction = biological needs o Security = emotional and social needs Primary Motivation for Behavior Avoid anxiety Gratify basic needs Theory of Psychosocial Development: Erikson Assigned a critical role to feelings and social relationships Did not believe person can become fixated Each stage involves a developmental issue o Each person resolves in some way o Some people do so more satisfactorily than others Theory of Motivation: Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow Study of normal people and mental health SelfActualization The tendency to develop one’s potential and become a better person Need to achieve the sense of selfacceptance and direction implicit in self actualization Maslow People are not static Always in the process of becoming different and more mature Hierarchy of Needs Physiologic Safety Love and Belonging Esteem from Others SelfActualization Aesthetic Knowledge and understanding Basic Needs Physiologic Safety Psychological Needs Love and Belonging Success and Esteem SelfFulfillment Needs Selfactualization – highest level Hierarchy of Needs People strive for higher level only after their lower level needs are satisfied Person who is starving may be too focused on food (physiological need) to seek love or success; but a person whose basic needs for survival and safety are met can focus on love and belonging and then success and esteem Comparison Freud = love and work Maslow = love and belonging (success and selfesteem) Model of Moral Development: Kohlberg Stages o Preconventional Morality o Conventional Morality o Postconventional Morality (focused on men) Preconventional Morality Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Oriented o Reasoning based on fear of punishment or desire for reward o Desire to avoid punishment from external authority Stage 2: Hedonistic and Instrumental Orientation o Good is whatever satisfies one’s own needs o Helping others so they will help you Conventional Morality Stage 3: Good Boy, Nice Girl Orientation o Reasoning based on opinions of others or formal laws o Act in ways others will approve of Stage 4: Authority or Law and Order Orientation o Moral judgments shift to doing one’s duty as prescribed by society’s laws o Concerns about possible dishonor or concrete harm to others replace concerns about other’s disapproval Postconventional or Principled Morality Moral reasoning based on abstract principles underlying right and wrong People transcend conventional reasoning Postconventional Morality Stage 5: Social Contact Orientation o Meet one’s obligation to help keep society running smoothly o Laws allow people to live in harmony o Actions motivated by desire to maintain selfrespect and respect of peers Stage 6: Hierarchy of Principles Orientation o Goal is to make decisions on basis of highest relevant moral principles o Rules of society are integrated with dictates of conscience to produce a hierarchy of moral principles o Avoid selfcondemnation for violating one’s own principles Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development Orientation of Individual Survival Transition1: From Selfishness to Responsibility o Goodness as selfsacrifice o Focus on women Transition 2: From Goodness to Truth o Morality or nonviolence Principles of Development Growth Increase in body size or changes in o Structure o Function and o Complexity of body cell content, metabolic and biochemical processes up to some point of optimum maturity Types of Growth Incremental Growth Replacement Growth Incremental Growth Maintaining excess in growth over normal daily losses Example: increase in height and weight Replacement Growth Normal refills of essential body components Example: red blood cells live 120 days Growth Occurs by Hypertrophy Increase in size of cellular structures Growth Occurs by Hyperplasia Increase in the number of cells Development Patterned Orderly Lifelong changes in o Structure o Thought o Feelings o Behavior Evolve as a result of o Maturation of physical or mental capacity o Experiences o Learning Results in new level of maturity and integration Developmental Task Growth responsibility that arises at a certain time in the course of development Successful achievement of which leads to satisfaction and success with later tasks Maturation Emergence of genetic potential for changes in form, structure, complexity, integration, organization, and function, physically and mentally Biological Age Level of physical growth and development and how the body functions over time Psychological Age Persons perception of the aging process Social Age Refers to society’s expectations of the person at a specific age or stage Chronological Age Time since birth Principles of Readiness Child’s ability to perform a physical task Depends on o Maturation of neurologic structures in brain o Maturation of muscular and skeletal Ex: toilet training Principle of Differentiation Development proceeds from: o Simple Complex Wave arms then learns to control fingers o Homogenous Heterogeneous Body configurations Male and female at birth More similar than during adolescence Embryo Paddlelike hands fingers o General Specific Motor responses at birth are diffuse and undifferentiated Later more specific and controlled Cephalocaudal Pattern Growth occurs from top (head) down Head disproportionately large Same patterns occurs head area o Top parts of head, eyes, and brain grow faster than lower parts – jaw Changes in Proportions of the Human Body during Growth Later the head is smaller in relation to the rest of the body Sensory and Motor Development Use upper body before lower body See objects before they can control trunk Learn to do things with hands before they can crawl or walk Proximodistal Growth occurs from the center of the body and moves outward extremities Limbs grow faster than hands and feet Upper arms and legs forearms and forelegs hands and feet fingers and toes Whole hand as unit before several fingers Near to far Growth progresses from central axis of body toward the periphery or the extremities Bilateral Side to side Capacity for growth and development of structures is symmetric Growth that occurs on one side of the body occurs simultaneously on the other Moves both arms symmetrically before can control movement so that one arm has different motor movement than the other Principles of Asynchronous Growth Focuses on developmental shifts at successive periods in development Young child is not small adult o Size of head to chest and torso to limbs of younger and older persons is very different Principles of Discontinuity of Growth Rate Refers to different rate of growth changes at different periods during the life span Whole body does not growth as total unit simultaneously Various structures grow and develop at different rates Before birth = head fastest growing body part Body growth is rapid during infancy and childhood Influences on Growth Endowment o Genetic influences Environment o Nutrition o Living conditions Growth Periods Differentiated Into Critical periods o Periods critical for body part and structure development o Adequate protein intake essential DNA formation Cell growth Cell multiplication Subcritical periods The Contexts of Development Overview If you want a seed to develop you must give it appropriate o Soil o Light o Moisture 1. Quality of Environmental factors PLUS, 2. Characteristics of the seed itself a. Determine how it grows and matures All living things develop in an environment (a context) The nature of the context plays a critical role in development True of humans and other species Human development, physical and psychological requires an appropriate context for unfolding Early Environmental Deprivation Harmful effects on development o Infants raised in institutions o Fed, kept clean, but left alone with little to look at or to touch o Lacking physical and social stimulation o Soon became apathetic, unresponsive, and withdrawn Most Recent Studies of Orphanages in Eastern European Show negative consequences of early institutional rearing Romanian Orphanages Children physically and socially deprived o 20 children cared for by 1 nurse Care is routine o Directed to children’s basic physical needs o No playing with children and almost no facetoface interaction o Children are listless and emotionless and have numerous physical problems Children adopted from these orphanages have o Higher than usual rate of insecure parentchild attachment and often indiscriminately friendly toward adult Caregivers are constantly changing Biological effects or early deprivation heightened physiological responses to stress Russian Institutions Less physically deprived, but socially sterile o Advanced Dress selves early and showed skill in handling objects Aggressive with other children Needy of adult contact Effects of Institutionalization Depends on o Type of stimulation and care provided o Appropriateness to the age and individual nature of the child o Availability of opportunities for normal giveandtake between infant and caregiver Most Children do not suffer the Effects of Early Environmental Deprivation Everyone is partly the product of contexts in which they develop o Economic circumstances o Ethnic groups o Communities o Relationships among family members (constantly changing) o Environment o Unique set of genes Developmental Contexts: Set of Contexts Human evolutionary history Culture Historic period Child’s community Surrounding socioeconomic culture Child’s / Adult’s community Surrounding socioeconomic climate Childs o Home o Family o Peer group o School Developmental Contexts Influence development in complex, interlocking ways Common Features of Modern North American Culture Television sets, computers, cell phones Two working parents Out of home child care Formal schooling Ecological Systems Theory: Uri Bronfenbrenner Everyday environment o Homes o Neighborhoods o Communities Concentric Circles 1. Child’s biological makeup 2. Immediate environment 3. Social and economic context 4. Cultural context 5. Time 1. Child’s Biological Makeup Evolutionary heritage shared by all humans o Riche evolutionary heritage that affects how they act o Behavioral traits Shared by all mammals Shared by all primates Built in ability to acquire language o Rather than precise timetable for many developmental milestones o Strong disposition to act on the environment rather than being passive o An innate propensity for learning o A predisposition for being social Interact and form bonds with other Essential for survival Helps ensure infants get care needed Behaviors the elicit care giving Looking, smiling, cooing, crying, clinging Individual genetic inheritance o Individual genetic makeup o Genetic similarity across individual humans, racial and ethnic groups, and even species (Human Genome Sequencing Consortium) o Play a role in survival o Direct effect Can impair mental and physical development o Indirect effect Affects education, living situation Interactions between genes and the environment o Childs developing brain and nervous system Particularly susceptible to the effects of experience and the environment In turn, these have a powerful influence on further development and behavior o Canalization Degreed to which genes constrain the environmental influences on particular traits Ex: babies vocalization include consonantvowel combinations at about 46 months of age regardless of culture or social context For some capacities is Weak early in life, and constraints more rigid with age Genes provide broad disposition for behavior; environment can influence For other capacities Strong genetic canalization exists early, but later there is increased openness to environmental influences 2. Immediate Environment All the settings, people, and physical objects with which the child has direct contact North American children o Home, peers, family, classrooms, children, teachers, playgrounds Parents o Play with children o Choose playthings Family o Dominant part of child’s immediate environment Stimulate language development Stimulate cognitive skills Emotional quality Provide role models Children imitate Male or female, mother or father, husband or wife o Family as system Daycare Peer groups Neighborhoods Schools 3. Social and Economic Context Includes o Materials in classroom o Staff o Curriculum o School’s physical facilities Shaped by o Local school board decisions o Community economic circumstances o State and national education and funding policies Broader social and economic context consists of social and economic o Community o Larger society Last 40 years o Social and economic factors Produced major changes in how American families live – all have consequences for children’s’ development Majority of American mothers work outside the home Rates of births to unmarried women has greatly increased since 1970 o Research has focused on children Low income, single, adolescent mothers Poverty contributes strongly to these children’s developmental problems Divorce produces a large number of singleparent families; consequences for children’s development are o Varied and complex o Depend on characteristics of Child Parent Social situation Divorce o School age boys Short term decline school achievement More demanding parent with custody Less demanding parent without custody o Important question Whether reaction observed in children of divorce are caused by divorce itself or by parents conflict If animosity stops with divorce better than if animosity continues Reduced conflict and continued contact with two parents seem to have best results for children Nontraditional families o Adult career women o Single adoptive parents o Families in which one or both parents are Lesbian or Gay Socioeconomic status (SES) influences development o Grouping of people within a society on the basis of income, occupation, and education o Working class and middle class parents Tend to use different children rearing methods Each has drawbacks Good and poor quality care of children is found at every socio economic level Persistent poverty has serious consequences for children’s cognitive and social emotional development o Cognitive development is especially harmed by Prenatal factors Lead in the environment Lack of stimulation Poverty and child development in the US o 1 in 6 children live in poverty o Some ethnic groups twice as high Poor families experience much more stress than middle class families do Poverty can become a selfperpetuating cycle o Exodus from cities/entrances back to city Some families do a good job of rearing their children under the worst of conditions Most parents who live in poverty don’t beat the odds; they reflect the odds Homelessness carries a particularly strong set of risks for children Single mothers with young children = most rapidly growing segment of homeless population Homeless o Women Less prenatal care o Babies Lower birth weight and higher mortality Suffer more health problems Less likely to receive proper immunizations More disruption school and friendships Indirect effect of unemployment and other changes in economic circumstances o Impact on parents psychological functioning and behavior Transitory poverty has fewer lasting impacts on children than persistent poverty does o Associated family stress can take a toll 4. Cultural Context That people in society shared o Beliefs o Attitudes o Values o Guidelines for behavior Ex: babies needs a great deal of individual attention and should ideally receive much of care from mother Ex: democracy, independence, and economic success In all cultures, adults face the same 2 major tasks in rearing children o Nurturance o Socialization Cultures differ in the ways they o Carry out the tasks of nurturance and socialization o Specific rules and values passed along o Final outcome of socialization Socialization occurs through o Explicit instruction o Way day to day experiences for children are structured in settings such as the educational system Children’s behavior often reflects the values and demands of their culture o Ex: it tends to be culturally adaptive Changes in cultures are usually reflected in changes in childrearing methods and in developmental outcomes o Wealthier nationsemotional wellbeing attended to o Poorer nations –physical survival primary concern Subcultures o Groups whose beliefs, attitudes, values, and guidelines for behavior differ in some ways from those in the dominant culture Each has their own influences on children’s development Inconsistencies between the values and norms of the dominant culture and those of a child’s subculture can contribute to academic problems 5. Development as Context Development itself provides a context for future development in 2 ways o Gives each person a developmental history which influences the course of further development o Changes in physical and cognitive abilities produced by maturation have a dramatic influence on how children interact with their environments and continue to develop Central to Erikson’s theory o Way a child negotiates issues of a particular developmental period depends, in part, on development during earlier periods Toddler must strike a balance between emerging sense of autonomy and capacity for selfassertion and the limits parents impose Depends on what happened in infancy and influence what will happen in preschool period o Toddlers new mobility encourages parents in many cultures to impose new demands, and the child’s world consequently changes Physical development of toddler, toddler is much more mobile than the infant, much more able to get into things Toddler beings to understand and use language as a result of neurological and cognitive maturation Opens up a whole new way of dealing with the world, which greatly affects future development Contexts of Interaction All of the following are constantly interacting as they influence how children develop o Biological context o Immediate environment o Social and economic context o Cultural context o The context of the child’s own developmental level and history Certain environmental factors tend to go together All environmental factors that children experience are funneled to some extent through the family Central Message Human development always occurs within a set of contexts
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