Anthropology 250 week 2
Anthropology 250 week 2 250
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by James Varner on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 250 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Berrey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Prehistoric north america in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
1-31-16 Intro to Archaeological Data Anthropology 250 I. The Basics a. Artifacts i. Objects used, modified, or made by people 1. Ex. Arrow heads, hammer stones, etc. 2. This includes modern day objects b. Ecofacts i. Organic and environmental remains that although not made by humans can still be revealing about many aspects of past human activity c. Features i. Non-portable artifacts 1. Ex. Ruins, monuments, architecture, soil stains (indicating organic materials put there by people) d. Sites i. The places where humans lived, among other things 1. Where all other data is found II. Scale and Study of Social Dynamics a. Studying societies in different scales and the dynamics between those soeties at different scales i. Scale system 1. Entire societies, regions, individual communities, and individual households III. Formation processes of Data a. Cultural formation processes i. The deliberate or accidental activities of humans that leave records (trash, tool making, etc.) b. Natural Formation Processes i. Natural events that govern the burial and survival of remains and data IV. The Behavior behind Cultural Formation Processes a. Acquisition of raw material i. Where did the tools and objects used originally come from 1. Ex. Quarries, animals provide many materials. b. Manufacture/modification of raw materials i. The making of tools, pottery, and other materials from raw materials c. Use and distribution of final product i. How and where was the object used 1. Ex. Arrow heads used to hunt animals, items traded across cultures, etc. d. Disposal of final product i. Primary discard 1. Discarded in its context of use a. Ex. Dropping a broken tool where you were using it and leaving it there ii. Secondary discard 1. Objects discarded formerly a. Ex. Discarding in a trash or refuse pile. V. Natural Formation: the environmental impact on cultural remains 1-31-16 Intro to Archaeological Data Anthropology 250 a. Inorganic materials (stone, ceramics) i. These materials preserve very well and last basically forever b. Organic Materials (clothes, bones, baskets, plants etc.) i. Most of the things that are used regularly by ancient cultures were organic ii. Much less durable, and have much lower rates of preservation 1. Everything organic rots pretty quickly iii. Preserved very well in extreme conditions 1. Extreme dryness 2. Extreme cold 3. Extreme wetness a. But not submerged in water more like really wet mud VI. Archaeological surveys a. Locating ancient Settlements and Sites to acquire data from i. Systematic vs. unsystematic surveys 1. Unsystematic a. Basically just wandering around looking for things 2. Systematic a. Multiple people spaced out specific distances combing an area for signs of archaeological data b. Varying intensities i. From being spaced out really far to being very close together VII. Archaeological excavation a. Time consuming b. Stratigraphy i. The layers of soil over thousands of years build up stratigraphy it’s a hard thing to explain so I would suggest looking it up on the internet c. Law of super position i. Older things will appear lower in the stratigraphy while younger things are located higher up 1. Unless they have been moved since there deposition such as through plowing or mining.
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