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BMS 212 Week 2 Notes

by: Brandon Czowski

BMS 212 Week 2 Notes BMS 212

Brandon Czowski

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About this Document

These notes cover the material of the second week of lecture
Dr. Leonard
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 212 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Leonard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.

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Date Created: 01/31/16
BMS 212 Week 2 Notes Prokaryotic Cells - Bacteria & Archaea - DO NOT have nucleus • Allows simultaneous transcription/translation - Lack Golgi apparatus, Endoplasmic R., lysosomes - 10x smaller than eukaryotic cells External Structures of Bacteria(Prokaryotic cells) Glycocalyx: gelatin like substance surrounding the cell, composed of polysaccharides; function to prevent cell from drying, adhere to it’s host or create biofilms, and form of resistance against host WBC/antibodies because similar chemicals are found in capsules and our bodies and makes it challenging to distinguish • True Capsule: has defined structure from tightly bound units, protection from hosts’ immune, allows ability to create biofilms (congregate) • Slime Layer: loose covering of glycocalyx that can easily be removed, sticky to create biofilms Biofilms: group of capsules that form a community of bacteria that work together, living together increase ability to cause infection because more concentrated, while increasing likelihood of adherence/survival Flagella: long structures protruding from cell that allow it to propel through its environment, although not present in all bacteria; *not enclosed in membrane* • Structure: filament composed of protein flagellin that is secreted from the core of flagella to lengthen; filament inserted into hook; hook anchored to cell wall/cytoplasmic membrane by basal body • Arrangements - Peritrichous: all over cell, not visible with stain - Monotrichous: one flagella - Lophotricous: tuft (grouping) at one end, can be both - Amphitricious: flagella at each end - Axial filaments: specialized form that wraps around the cell between cytoplasmic and outer membranes, composed of endoflagella, present in spirochetes • Function: flagellar movement; taxis, the movement in response to a stimulus - Chemotaxis: movement towards a chemical/nutrient is positive chemotaxis - Phototaxis: movement towards a light source is positive phototaxis - Movement is dependent on position, flagella can align and rotate in the same direction to “run”, and reverse of switch rotation to “tumble”, or switch its direction Fimbriae: numerous short, sticky projections that allow cells to stick together or attach to nutrients; allows movement by extending fimbriae to object and pulling cell towards it; important for biofilms because they can produce electrical signals Pili: fewer per cell, longer than fimbriae, composed of proteins; function to transport DNA between cells (conjugation), or movement by attaching to another cell/object Cell wall: function to give cells shape and strength, especially in osmotic pressure; composed of peptidoglycan where “glycan” is the covalently linked sequences of alternating N- acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) and “peptido” comes from the amino acids/peptide bridges linking them together; only present in bacteria • Growth: the peptidoglycan shell must grow in order for the cell to grow, uses bacterial enzymes autolysis to break bonds of NAG and NAM, while transpeptidases reseals the broken bonds after addition of new peptidoglycan subunits 1 BMS 212 Week 2 Notes • Cell is vulnerable when growing because cell wall is stretching and even more vulnerable if one enzyme got ahead of the other and doesn’t reseal broken chain • Differences in types of cell walls - Gram-positive bacterial cells: thick layer of peptidoglycan (90% weight), have teichoic acids/lipoteichoic acids that bind cell wall to cell membrane, giving structure; these cells appear purple from primary Gram stain (crystal violet) - Gram-negative bacterial cells: thin peptidoglycan, has another membrane above peptidoglycan layer that contains phospholipids, proteins, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS); LPS composed of Lipid A portion (endotoxin) that causes fever, vasodilation, shock, when released (occurs when cell is damaged/dies); appear pink after Gram stain - Acid Fast cell walls: specific for genus (Mycobacterium), wall contains mycelia acid (hydroxylated fatty, waxy, acids) making them resistant to antibiotics/extreme environments; takes longer to synthesize the cell wall; Ex. leprosy, tuberculosis Cytoplasmic membrane: composed of phospholipid bilayer (hydrophilic head & hydrophobic tails) and creates fluid mosaic model from the mosaic spread of proteins among the membrane and fluid as it is free to flow laterally; function to harvest light energy, controls what substances pass through the cell, proteins allow crossing of membrane, maintains the concentration/ electrical gradient of cell Types of Passive Transport - Simple diffusion: net movement of a substance down its concentration gradient (oxygen, C02, small or lipid soluble substances) - Facilitated diffusion: proteins in the membrane that help diffuse the substance down its gradient (generally larger molecules that alone couldn’t pass through membrane) - Osmosis: diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane NOTE: cells with cell walls almost prefer a slightly hypotonic solution because their chances of lysing are low because of the structured cell wall pushes on the outside eventually stopping water from entering; cells without cell walls can lyse and die because their membrane continuously allows movement of water inside the cell Types of Active Transport: uses stored energy to usually move a substance against its concentration gradient with the use of carrier proteins - Group translocation: (only in prokaryotic, bacterial cells) substance being transported is chemically altered when being transported; allows the substance to stay in the cell instead of going down its concentration gradient(leaving the cell) Internal Structures of Prokaryotes 2 BMS 212 Week 2 Notes Cytoplasm: term to describe the material inside a cell; composed of cytosol, inclusions, and ribosomes Cytosol: mostly water that also contains suspended substances; region that includes DNA is termed nucleoid; the DNA is organized in circles called plasmids, which carry immune response/ antibodies for the cell Ribosomes: site of protein production; made from 2 subunits (protein/rRNA); Svedbergs are the sedimentation rate of the components, which can be affected by size, weight, and shape - Prokaryotic ribosomal subunits are 70 Svedbergs - Eukaryotic ribosomes have 80 Svedbergs (larger, heavier of the two) Endospores: produced by Clostridium and Bacillus as a defense mechanism for unfavorable/ harsh conditions; Dipicoinic acid and calcium form a spore coat for 8-10 hours to stabilize DNA; if condition persist the cell dies off, leaving a single endospore in its capsule until returned to favorable conditions; resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals; spore location depends on species, can be in the middle, toward one end, or at the very end of mother cell Inclusions: storage sites in cytosol for materials that are in abundance now to be used later (ex. lipids, starch, PHB—lipid polymers of glucose); variations include gas vesicles (aquatic cyanobacteria use to float to surface for light) and magnetosomes (storage of magnetite to produce sacs that can position themselves for growth) 3


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