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BSC 215- Week 3 Notes

by: Alexia Acebo

BSC 215- Week 3 Notes BSC 215

Alexia Acebo
GPA 3.7

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A collection of notes from Week 3! Including Clicker Questions!
Human Anatomy & Physiology I
Dr. Jason Pienaar
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology I in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 01/31/16
BSC 215- Week 3 Notes LO 7. (Cont.) **Ionic EX NaCl=electrolyte -ALWAYS happens in solution -anything that ionizes in water DEF: start with transfer of electrons from one atom to another, then opposites attract **Non-polar covalent EX H & C -each H has 1 electron, C has 4 valence electrons -both need what they have and more to fulfill octet rule *All H’s equidistant from C & each other= nonpolar *All subatomic particles have same electrostatic repulsion DEF: Sharing of electrons to satisfy octet/ duet STRONGEST BONDS= triple covalent bonds **nonpolar covalent bondsstrongest **Polar covalent EX water **Hydrogen - polar covalent molecules essential for H bonds - no transfer of electrons, distribution just changes  Ionic bond is much stronger - Hydrogen partial bond charge - EX water vs. table salt DEF: weak attractions between polar molecules Properties of Water Solvency Cohesion Adhesion Chemical reactivity- active participant Thermal stability- can absorb without changing, acts as temperature buffer **Van de Waal’s what allows geckos to stick to glass DEF: brief attractions between nonpolar molecules due to temperature polarization ( electron cloud disturbances) Lecture 3 -Enzymes, water, acids & bases- LO1. Understand the notation and basic energetics of chemical bond formation Chemical reaction: chemical bonds are broken, formed, rearranged or electrons are transferred. ReactantsProducts Reversible AB A+B -Reversible Synthesis/ Decomposition- -Exchange Reaction- HCl+NaOHH2O+NaCl 3 forms of energy (human body) 1. Chemical energy a. Endergonic: products have more energy than reactants b. Exergonic: reactants have more energy than products i. Food for example ii. Building blocks glucose, ATP etc. iii. Type of potential energy 2. Electrical energy a. FLOW OF IONS b. Communication between cells 3. Mechanical energy a. DIRECT TRANSFER b. Transferred from one object to another by force LO 2. Describe the factors that influence reaction rates For chemical reaction to occur: 1. Reactants must come into physical contact with one another 2. Reactants must overcome the repulsive forces of their electrons Factors that influence rate:  Concentration: Low=few collisions, More= more collisions  Temperature: speed increases with temperature- more collisions  Reactant properties: solution-phase v. solid phase  Catalysts: facilitate molecular collision correctly LO 3. Explain the properties, actions and importance of enzymes Glucose sucrose + fructose Biological Catalysts: Lower activation energy required to make or break covalent bonds Highly specific: Unique, active site regions bind specific molecules (substrates) Reusable: Enzyme structure reverts to original form after analyzing reactions LO 4. Discuss the physiologically important properties of H2O Most abundant inorganic molecule in cells High heat capacity o Absorbs/ releases a lot before changing own temp. High heat vaporization o Lots of heat to break H bonds (collectively strong) Highly reactive o Participants in hydrolysis in dehydration reactions Adhesive and cohesive o Sticks to itself by H bonds o Sticks to objects by some polarity o Lubricant for organs, keep dissolved chemicals together Polar solvent o Facilitates dissociation of polar molecules NaCl in water Hydration spheres: H2O’s surrounding Cl &Na after separation so they do not rebond - keep ions dissociated, allow movement & interaction with other ions LO 5. Define and describe the properties of acids and bases with respect to hydrogen ions All acids are electrolytes o Ionize and dissociate in water o Proton donors  Release hydrogen ions into solution  Concentration determines acidity All bases are electrolytes o Ionize & dissociate in water  Proton acceptors  Release hydroxyl ions into solution [OH-]  Concentration [OH-] determines alkalinity LO 6. Explain what the pH scale measures -interested in concentration of hydrogen ions -negative logarithm (base 10) !!!HIGHER [H+]= LOWER pH more acidic !!!LOWER [H+]= higher pH more alkaline/basic NEUTRAL=7 LO 7. Explain how a pH buffer works -Normal blood pH= 7.35-7.45 buffers prevent rapid shifts in pH  weak acids and bases that maintain equilibrium  Release H+ into solution as pH rises  Bind H+ out of solution when pH decreases EX carbonic acid in blood Law of Mass Action: rate of chemical reaction is directly proportionate to the concentration of reacting substances Lecture 4 -Organic Macromolecules- LO 1. What do we mean by organic compounds? LO 2. Explain the relationship between monomers and polymers  Polymer o Macromolecules made up of repeating identical or similar subunits (monomers)  EX: DNA, RNA, proteins, carbs, lipids LO 3. Define and give examples of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions Dehydration Synthesis: anabolic reaction in which 2 monomers are linked by a covalent bond and a water molecule is formed Hydrolysis: catabolic reaction in which the covalent bond linking the monomers is broken by the addition of water molecules LO 4. Compare/Contrast general molecular structures of carbs, lipids, proteins and nucleotides and identify their structures Carbs  Contain C,H,O o Monomers: 1 C: 2H: 1O= CH2O (monosaccharides) Lipids  C, H, O o Different ratio: monomers: (1C:2H)n:2O o Polymers: triglycerides, sterols Proteins  C,H,O,N(in amino group)  Monomers: amino acids  Polymers: proteins Nucleic Acids  Ex-DNA, RNA  C,H,O,N,P  Monomers: nucleotides  Polymers: DNA & RNA LO 5. Physiological & Structural roles of macromolecules Glycogen synthesized and stored in: liver, muscles, brain, uterus Lipids: o Fatty acids- energy molecules and building blocks for polymers o Steroid- cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen o Triglycerides- store fatty acids, building blocks of phospholipids o Phospholipids- major cell membrane component Proteins: o Fibrous- structural/mechanical o Globular- major cell membrane component Nucleics: o DNA- hereditary material o ATP energy currencu Clicker Quiz (1/28)  C,H,O 10:20:2 o Lipid  Catabolic reactions involve dehydration sythesis o False  Cholesterol is a type of o Lipid  Not a part of nucleotide o Amino acid


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