ASTR 100 Week 3 Notes, Bob Berrington
ASTR 100 Week 3 Notes, Bob Berrington ASTR 100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Gardner on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Bob Berrington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Astronomy: Solar System and Beyond in Astronomy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
ASTR 100 Section 2, Spring 2016, MWF Section 1 The Cycles of the Sky; Week 3 1/25/16 Mon I. Unit Conversions a. Use multiplicative identity property i. This property means that a number multiplied by 1= [that same number; 1] ii. Aka 12in/1ft= 1 ft or 12 in b. All unit conversions that could be used are in the appendices of the book i. One common one 1. 1 in = 2.54 cm c. Example i. Convert 26.2 miles to kilometers 1. 1.6093 km in one mile 2. 26.2 mi/1 x 1.6093 km/1 mi = 42.2 km 3. Miles cancel each other out (one in the numerator and one in the denominator d. More Complicated Example i. Convert 5 meters/second to mi/hr ii. Same process iii. 5 m/s x 60 s/1 min x 60min/1 hr x 1 km/1000 m x 1 mi/ 1.6093 km = 11 mi/hr iv. Meters, seconds, and minutes, and kilometers all cancel out to leave mi/hr II. Side Note: Free Planetarium software! a. www.stellarium.org i. Constellation lore ii. Shows constellations in the sky III. The Celestial Sphere a. Stars are further away than others and moving at different speeds in the sky i. Only commonality is that they lie in approximately the same direction from earth b. The sky appears as a sphere rotating east to west i. This is called diurnal motion 1. In other words, it is the rising and setting of celestial objects in the celestial sphere 2. If the object rotates E > W it’s a westwardly motion a. Earth rotates East c. Fiducial Points i. Fixed points in the sky ii. The North and South Celestial poles are fiducial points 1. The celestial poles are the points in the celestial sphere that line up with earth’s axis IV. Geocentric Reference Frame a. Celestial pole (NCP and SCP) are lined up with earth’s axis on the celestial sphere b. They are fixed reference points in the sky c. Celestial equator = on the same plane as the earth’s equator V. The Earthbound observer a. Horizon i. Plane of the ground meets celestial sphere ii. Time and location dependent b. Zenith i. Point of the celestial sphere directly aboce the observer ii. Furthest point from the horizon iii. Also time and location dependent c. Nadir i. Point directly beneath the observer ii. Yet again time and location dependent d. Cardinal Points i. North Point (N or NP) = poin on horizon directly above the NCP ii. South Point (S) = point on horizon beneath the SCP iii. East and West Points = intersection of horizon and the celestial equator e. Meridian i. Line from NP, zenith, and SP (a line of longitude) VI. The Bowl Diagram a. Lattitude dependency of the Bowl Diragram i. Positive values = above the horizon ii. Negative values = below the horizon
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