New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

HIST 278 Week 3 notes

by: Lynde Wangler

HIST 278 Week 3 notes HIST 278

Lynde Wangler
GPA 3.836

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

week three lecture notes
History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade
Lisa Lindsay
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

Popular in History

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lynde Wangler on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 278 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Lisa Lindsay in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in History at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


Reviews for HIST 278 Week 3 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/31/16
HIST 278 Week 3 Notes from Lecture The Maritime Revolution, or Christopher Columbus goes to Africa  Introduction: Ceuta, 1415 o Prince Henry, “The Navigator” (1394-1460): leader of expedition the Portuguese crossed the Straight of Gibraltar to Ceuta in search of GOLD trade network developed from that point forward; the Portuguese wanted in on the existing sub-Saharan Africa trade network  Henry was a patron of navigation and expansion but not a likely heir to the throne so he asserted himself elsewhere  created a “think tank” to pool expertise and devise a way to access trans- Saharan trade  Problem: Portuguese mariners did not know how to get back because there were only southward winds and their ships were too weak to tack against these winds  Problem solved  1) expertise: Portuguese used Arabic and Viking ship and sail designs, resulting in the creation of a vessel called the Caravel that was strong enough to persevere through the winds & 2) accidental luck: sailed far enough west that they found winds that would take them back north (mid-1400s)  Began to sail down the African coast (1440s) and to tap into the sub-Saharan trading networks  First Contact Zone Senegambia (gave Portuguese access to the Bambuhu and Bure gold fields); they then tried to get into the slave trade by stealing people while there o Portuguese sometimes got themselves captured and killed for this…but eventually became peaceful trade of gold and there were very few people used as domestic servants (this was a status symbol of luxury)  The Gold Coast – producers started to trade directly with the south, cutting out the middle men; Portuguese sent a delegation to set up a fortified base on coast to store the gold that was sold to them  Caramansa (leader of the African community where the Portuguese were) viewed this as an economic opportunity for growth o El Mina (name of the fort, 1480s) in Ghana served as a holding place for gold for about 2 centuries and eventually became a fort for the slave trade in exchange for the GOLD, Caramansa needed slaves to work the gold mines, so the Portuguese for into a carrying trade in which **they began bringing in slaves and out gold  The Kingdom of Benin: centralized kingdom; contact made in 1480s; did not have a goal – could trade slaves or goods; Oba of Benin sent his own delegation to Portugal to check it out & learn some more about Portugal  Oba established a gov. trade (traded some spicy peppers, some slaves, etc.); Benin wanted metal (Benin Bronzes are well-known)  Kingdom of Kongo: Portuguese explorers came in 1482; Kingdom sent a delegation to Portugal (and decided that they were good potential allies); accepted Christian missionaries and bought more goods in exchange for slaves  the Portuguese would sell these slaves to Sao Tome and some back to El Mina (they developed a carrier trade) o All the while…relentless increase in demand for labor force for sugar  Plantation Complex: o Characteristics of the Plantation Complex – large-scale enterprises, served foreign markets (part of international networks), most of the workers were slaves (there were overseers who enforced labor; generally not self-sustaining the need for new supply of labor was constant and relentless), specialized product sold to distant markets, political control remained on another continent The Plantation Complex Comes to the Americas: Why African Slaves(?)  Discovering the New World: o 1492 – Columbus thought he had discovered India (hence Indians) in actuality, it was Hispaniola; 1498 – Columbus led an expedition that ended up in South America o 1493 – seized people on island of Hispaniola and tried to impose slavery on sugar plantations PROBLEM: Native American populations were vulnerable to European diseases (tuberculosis, small pox, etc.) and combined with brutality on plantations affected a high death rate…  This leads Spanish to turn to Africans brought in by Portuguese 1526 Asiento: license from the Spanish government to ship slaves to Spanish possessions  Why African Slaves??? o High demand for labor; because they could – Africans were easily accessible; natives did not live long enough due to disease but Africans had prior exposure to European diseases and were not as affected o Slaves were imported to the Spanish Caribbean but the sugar industry languished (in the early years) because the cost did not outweigh the benefits Spanish left for another interest: colonization of the South American mainland, mining gold and silver (Incas, Aztecs, etc.)  Armies of conquistadors descendants of African slaves had been assimilated into European culture in waves but slavery = social marginality and as such, slaves made good soldiers, bureaucrats, and political administrators (allegiance was to their masters and unwavering) they were granted feudal estates for being war heroes… o This created a need for labor and made possible importation of Africans o S.A. gold was the initial draw but silver became the money-load – it was sent to Spain to send to China to pay off debts (1540s) o Who Would Mine? – Natives because they were there and easy to exploit; “justifiable” because the natives were not Christians   The Ecomienda – labor control system using natives; grant of land and the labor upon it; parallels the feudalism in many ways but with Indians who were not considered chattel but served a serf-like role  Bartolome de Las Casas: wrote a series of descriptions (1450s) of the brutality of the system prompting Spain to pass regulatory laws enslavement of Indians was prohibited and the encomienda system was greatly reduced  *** meanwhile, the economy is taking off o Demographic Catastrophe – massive population decline in the 1500s and early 1600s  Lima, Peru and Mexico were able to afford slaves; Lima was the “jewel” of the Spanish empire bringing in so many slaves that by 1590, about half of the population were slaves (had to be marched over land) o Conditions were bad and Filipe Guaman Poma de Ayala (1535-1616) wrote an extensive manuscript depicting the atrocities committed in Peru and sent it to the Spanish court (statement being “look, this is what you have done”) o Peru was a society with slaves because had the slaves not been forced into labor, the silver would certainly have been mined by other means  Portuguese laid claim to Brazil: they did not find the metals that they had been hoping for; in the 1530s, they got the idea to establish sugar manufacture in northern Brazil This endeavor TOOK OFF! By the mid-1500a (and definitely by the 1600s), Brazil was the sugar production capital of the Western world o The question of who would fill the labor demand existed… initially locals BUT the Indians could resist by running into the forest that was not accessible to outsiders and disease also drastically decreased the population o Portuguese recalled prior experiences with producing and shipping sugar and importing labor from outside sources  this led to importation of slaves (mostly) from West Central Africa to Brazil  African Slavery in N.E. Brazil: African slaves came to Brazil in the 2dhalf of the 1500s/ by the 1600s, there were almost all African slaves (replacing the Indians as the labor supply)  Main Reasons for African Slaves  Portuguese already have access  Africans cannot run away into the forests (they are not familiar with the area and natives would capture and kill them; where would they go?)  Africans are less susceptible to European diseases because of prior exposure


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.